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What is eczema?

Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis is a very common chronic skin disease. It is very common in babies and small children. As many as 15-20% of children under the age of seven have eczema, which is a significant increase in the last 30 years. In 50% of cases, atopic eczema is gone by the age of six, but it can persist into adulthood.

What does eczema look like?

Eczema is a skin condition that manifests as inflammation, dryness, itching, or redness on the skin’s surface. The skin with atopic eczema is accompanied by itching, is very dry, and prone to irritation. The disease usually has two phases, an active or “acute” phase and an inactive phase. People prone to atopic eczema must protect their skin during the inactive phase so that the periods between active phases are as long and painless as possible.

Scratching the area affected by eczema increases the possibility that various viruses, bacteria, and impurities will penetrate the skin and further worsen the itching. That discomfort accompanied by itching is quite frustrating for sufferers because even though scratching worsens the symptoms of eczema, it is very difficult to resist that urge.

Eczema affects people of all ages. It can cause irritation and pain caused by the formation of blisters and unpleasant cracks on the skin. In addition, many people suffer because of their appearance and do not feel comfortable in society.

The causes of eczema are not completely known, but some of them are listed below. Those are:

  • genetics – 50%-70% of eczema sufferers have a parent who also has this disease
  • perfumes or some deodorants
  • friction in contact with some synthetic fibers or wool
  • allergens such as dust mites, dust, pollen, animal hair, or mold
  • stress
  • heavy sweating
  • various soaps
  • fabric softeners
  • central heating
  • air conditioning devices
  • diabetes can also be a cause of eczema

Eczema on the face

Eczema on the face is accompanied by very dry, tight, and itchy skin. It most often appears in newborns and small children. It most often occurs on the face, especially on the cheeks and chin. Over time, eczematous areas first appear on the neck, and skin folds around the elbows and wrists, and behind the knees.

Symptoms of atopic eczema on the face are flaking, and rough and red spots. Symptoms include areas of very itchy dry skin, often with visible scratch marks. Symptoms of atopic eczema on a child’s face greatly affect a child’s self-esteem and can cause shame and anxiety. The good thing is that with appropriate treatment and regular care, atopic eczema can be effectively controlled and resolved. Sometimes even to the point where it stops being a problem.

As we have already emphasized, one of the main symptoms of eczema is dry skin. When the skin is very dry, its protection is not strong enough, the skin loses moisture faster and is more prone to inflammation and infections. That is why good hydration of the skin is the most important thing in the fight against eczema.

Eczema on the skin

Eczema-prone skin lacks natural moisture-retaining factors such as amino acids. In the same way, atopic skin deals with disorders in the creation of a protective layer of lipids. The skin’s protective layer weakens, and the lower layers are more susceptible to infection due to frequent scratching.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are often its triggers. Moreover, if the skin is dry and itchy, the affected person will often scratch. Scratching reduces the protective function of the skin. As a result, the lower layers of the skin become more exposed and more sensitive to various infections and factors from the environment. When the bacteria get into the skin, they irritate, so the itching continues. In this way, a vicious circle is created in people prone to atopic skin.

The real cure for atopic eczema has still not been found and dermatologists have yet to discover it. But regardless, it has been proven that in some people, a certain number of factors affect the increased risk of the disease. Those are:

  • Genetics. There is a possibility that a child will develop atopic eczema if one or both parents suffer from health problems such as asthma or hay fever. The risk of disease increases proportionally so that if both parents have all three health problems, the possibility that the child will inherit the disease is also higher.
  • Climate. In areas with a colder climate, there is a greater risk of atopic dermatitis. Likewise, living in polluted cities increases the risk of disease.
  • Sex. Women are more prone to atopic eczema than men.
  • Mother’s age. Children born in their mothers’ late reproductive period are more susceptible to the risk of atopic eczema than those born in their mothers’ younger period of life.

As the triggers for developing atopic eczema vary from person to person, with just a few lifestyle changes it is possible to significantly ease the symptoms of atopic eczema. We will only mention some of them.

  • Wearing soft cotton clothing in contact with the skin. Cotton is very pleasant to the skin and can be worn in layers even in winter. Materials that scratch a lot, such as wool, as well as fabrics that do not allow the skin to breathe, such as nylon, should be avoided as much as possible.
  • Try avoiding heavy sweating as much as possible, maintaining low temperature and low humidity.
  • Keeping a food diary can also help track triggers that affect atopic eczema. In the diary, you can record all the triggers that lead to the acute phase.
  • Planning an annual holiday in climes with colder to moderate climates. Areas that are neither too hot nor too cold have a beneficial effect on skin prone to atopic eczema.
  • Skin care products should be stored in a cool place, preferably in the refrigerator. Applying cooled skin preparations is very helpful in alleviating itching.
  • Always wash new clothes before wearing them. New clothes may contain irritating dyes and odors in the fabric.
  • If you are prone to scratching, wearing cotton gloves at night to prevent scratching while you sleep may help.
  • Showering with warm or lukewarm water. The water should not be hot.
  • Bathing should not be too long. 5-10 minutes is enough.
  • When bathing, it is good to use bath oils because they provide additional care.
  • Rough sponges and massage brushes should be avoided.
  • Light exercise such as yoga can also be good for stress relief.

Eczema on hands

Eczema on the hands can be caused by different factors. It can be due to contact with some allergens (some substance that causes an allergic reaction) such as strong chemicals, other external factors (eg irritants such as soaps and detergents), and predispositions. Eczema on the hands can significantly reduce the quality of life and also lead to various problems. There are many types of hand eczema. Depending on the type, there are various topical therapies such as creams, ointments, lotions, and systemic therapies.

Eczema on the hands (also called dermatitis on the hands) is a very common phenomenon and unfortunately, affects one in twenty people. Symptoms can vary. Variations can range from mild dryness, redness and itching, to severely flaky and itchy hands. In very severe cases, painful cracks may appear on the skin that oozes or bleeds. With eczema on the hands, any part of the hand can be affected and the symptoms certainly differ from person to person.

Eczema on the hands can appear in childhood, but more often it appears in adults. It very often affects people whose hands are in frequent contact with chemicals or other irritants during work. Eczema on the hands is not contagious, but it causes difficulties in everyday life and at the workplace.

Some people have a genetic predisposition to atopic eczema. They are certainly more sensitive to external irritants and allergens and are more likely to develop eczema on their hands.

However, people who do not have a genetic predisposition can also develop eczema on their hands. Due to its delicate structure, the skin on the hands is more prone to dryness than other parts of the body. Washing too often, cold weather, or chemicals in the workplace can damage the outer layers of the skin and lead to dryness, thus increasing the tendency to irritation. This condition is also called irritant contact dermatitis.

Eczema on legs

Eczema on the legs is an inflammatory process on the skin of the lower extremities. The disease is very often chronic and most often allergic in nature and caused by a combination of external and internal causes.

The most important thing is to determine the exact cause because causes can vary. For example, varicose veins (develops on the back of important varicose veins, and is accompanied by itching, burning, and redness of the skin), foot eczema (appears under the influence of external causes), and the like. The disease can occur as a result of long-term stress if the person had a viral infection, or due to various chronic diseases.

Causes of eczema

  • Various allergenic substances on the skin
  • Chemicals such as gasoline, various paints, household chemicals, cosmetic soap, etc.
  • Sudden changes in temperature or climate changes
  • Varicose veins
  • Chronic viral disease
  • Injury to some internal organs
  • Weakening of the protective function of the body
  • Wearing woolen clothes
  • Fungal diseases
  • Nervous breakdown or stressful situation

Treatment for eczema on the feet includes both local and general treatment methods. With local therapy, the degree of the disease is assessed.

Regardless of the cause of foot eczema, it is recommendable for the patient to adhere to a special diet, which excludes products such as alcohol, smoked meat, hot spices, sweet and sour foods, chemical additives, and so on. It is vitally important to adhere to such a diet during the period of worsening of the disease.

Contact dermatitis

Speaking of contact dermatitis or contact eczema, we distinguish between non-allergic and allergic eczema, according to the clinical picture and the way it originates, with the fact that both forms can occur in an acute or chronic form.

Acute non-allergic contact dermatitis occurs as a result of a strong reaction after contact with an extremely strong external factor. The underlying cause is only an inflammatory process, without allergic or immunological events. The most common causes of eczema are chemicals based on acids and alkalis, various solvents, thinners, or strong exposure to X-ray, UV, or laser rays. Here, only the surface layer of the skin is damaged, and only at the point of contact. Changes are also sharply limited. The skin is red and slightly swollen, blisters may appear that are filled with clear or sometimes purulent contents. Peeling and cracking of the skin may occur. There is a feeling of burning and tightness with slight itching. Eczema can subside even without treatment.

Chronic non-allergic contact dermatitis occurs after long-term effects of chemical or strongly irritating substances on the skin. At the same time, they cause chronic damage to the skin because the lipid protective layer of the skin becomes thinner, the pH of the skin changes, and the normal bacterial flora is lost. Changes on the skin develop slowly, especially if one uses no protective equipment such as gloves or protective creams. The most common places that are exposed to these changes are the hands and fingers. The skin becomes very dry, and thickened, it can peel or develop very painful cracks.

Eczema cream

Eczema treatment can be very long-term and may require different therapy over a long period of time. There are various treatments that help relieve eczema such as:

  • skin moisturizing creams or lotions
  • creams or oral therapy to reduce itching or inflammation (eg corticosteroids)
  • creams for restoring damaged skin
  • antibiotics or other medicines that treat infection in open wounds or cracked skin

There are some simple steps you can take to reduce eczema symptoms:

  • Treat the skin with moisturizing products, such as moisturizing creams or lotions. This is especially important after showering.
    • Do not bathe in water hotter than 36°C and do not bathe for longer than 10-15 minutes.
    • Use only mild soaps.
    • Wear soft, breathable clothing. The best choice is cotton or linen. Synthetic fiber materials are not good for people prone to eczema.
    • Regularly light up and ventilate the rooms where you stay.



Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrhea on the head and seborrhea on the face are terms that are very often used to define seborrheic dermatitis, but essentially, seborrhea is a technical term for the excessive secretion of sebum by the sebaceous glands.

If you have flakes of dandruff, itching, redness, inflammation, and sores on your scalp, then your problem is not seborrhea, but seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis with a psychosomatic component, or psychosomatic dermatitis.

How to distinguish between dandruff, seborrhea, and seborrheic dermatitis?

Seborrhea is an increased secretion of fat from the sebaceous glands, and it is only about dry or oily fat that does not cause itching. Hair and scalp are greasy and cause, for the most part, an aesthetic problem.

Dandruff is recognizable by its small scales, white in color, without itching, redness, and erythema.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammation of the skin, the scales are larger than dandruff, yellowish in color, and can be stuck to the scalp in multiple layers. The area is red, sores are often present, and an irritating itch is present.

Bacterial flora, natural skin protection consists of sebum (fat), sweat, dead epidermal cells, physiological bacteria and fungi (among others Pityrosporum ovale – Malassezia in D/SD), and other fats produced by the skin. When in balance, it has a germicidal and self-sterilizing effect.

In dry dandruff, the percentage of the fungus Pityrosporum ovale exceeds the normal presence in the bacterial flora by up to 40%. With oily dandruff, the presence is over 73%, but even then there is still no itching or erythema. When Pityrosporum ovale reaches 83% presence in the bacterial flora, it begins to secrete fatty acids from sebum, which in oxidation processes cause inflammation, itching, redness, sores, and scabs.

What is seborrheic dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis is a papulosquamous disorder that occurs on skin rich in sebaceous glands and sebum. It appears in the form of seals, which itch, and is accompanied by peeling of the skin. In case sores are created by scratching, burning and redness occur. Dandruff is yellowish in color, very often greasy and moist. It most often occurs on the capillitium, but it can also occur on the face, chest, back, and other parts of the body that have a lot of sebaceous glands.

Seborrheic dermatitis is not contagious and cannot be passed from one person to another. It cannot affect general health, but it causes an aesthetic problem that can be bothersome. Over time, it can lead to significant hair loss, because although it is a skin problem, it has a lot of impact on the health of the hair and its appearance. Dandruff deposits on the scalp create a barrier and prevent normal hair growth, leading to thinning and hair loss.

Seborrheic dermatitis is caused, in addition to sebum, by the fungus Pityrosporum ovale, which is part of the bacterial flora, as well as various immune abnormalities. Seborrheic dermatitis is a long-term skin condition and is recurrent, ie. it appears many times in life, even if we have brought it under control with successful treatments. Like herpes, it remains present, so in cases of a strong drop in immunity, stress, or psychophysical exhaustion, it knows how to return even in a more severe form.

Clinical picture

Seborrheic dermatitis is not the same as regular dandruff, so if you struggle with this problem, it can be very frustrating. Your shoulders are constantly full of white or yellowish scales, which are not at all small and unnoticeable, and your hair gets greasy very quickly and always looks messy. The scalp is covered with a layer of dandruff, and when you scratch, dandruff spreads through the hair. Over time, hair begins to fall out and hair loss occurs.

Dandruff, redness, erythema, and itching do not stop only on the hair but spread over the face, forehead, nose, and eyebrows. They can also appear in the ear, on the chest, on the shoulder blades, and so on. The condition worsens with increased air humidity when the seasons change (it is in remission in summer, worsens in autumn, and drastically worsens in winter when the air humidity is the highest. In spring, the condition is milder than in winter). It varies from mild scaling, which occurs in lesions (limited areas), to the appearance of severe squamous deposits, which can cover the entire scalp.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis manifest as:

• Large scales of dandruff

• Itchy scalp

• Scratching can lead to secondary bacterial infections, wetting, sores, and scabs

• Red and inflamed seals on the scalp, sores, and scabs

• Unpleasant smell of hair and scalp

• Dandruff deposits in the form of cradle caps in adults

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis can also appear on other parts of the body:

• Face, eyebrows, around the edges of the eyelids (the result can be inflammation of the eyelids – blepharitis), around the nose area, nasolabial folds, behind the ears, and in the external ear canal

• Chest, back, underarms, navel area, thighs, and in places where there are bends and folds on the body

In whom does seborrheic dermatitis occur?

Seborrheic dermatitis occurs in both sexes, but a more severe clinical picture is more common in men, with more prominent symptoms. It most often occurs in the third and fourth decade of life, and also in the period of adolescence, due to sudden and intensified hormonal changes. It can also occur in babies, usually around ten weeks after birth, and it is a cradle cap, which is temporary and usually disappears by the age of three.

It is estimated that around 10-20% of the world’s population has seborrheic dermatitis problems. The main characteristic of seborrheic dermatitis is its persistence, because it very often returns, just when we thought we got rid of it.

Seborrheic dermatitis – causes

The most common causes of seborrheic dermatitis are:

• The contribution of the Pityrosporum ovale fungus is high, due to its additional effect on enhancing lipid activity (it releases more fatty acids – the main factor of inflammation) and its ability to activate inflammatory processes.

• Itching, redness, inflammation, wounds, and scabs, are caused by the oxidation of fatty acids, but only when the percentage of the Pityrosporum ovale fungus exceeds 83% as part of the bacterial flora.

• Seborrheic dermatitis is most often hereditary, due to disturbances in the function of the sebaceous glands, and increased secretion of fat, which results in the shortened process of scalp cell renewal. The consequence is accelerated exfoliation of keratinized skin cells.

Other possible causes of seborrheic dermatitis are:

• Hormonal changes (especially sex hormones)

• Emotional stress

• Psychiatric and neurological conditions (depression and Parkinson’s disease)

• Weakened immune system

• Endocrine gland diseases

• Diet (fast food, fatty and spicy food, alcohol…)

• Use of certain medications

• Use of aggressive and inappropriate cosmetic products (shampoo, conditioner…)

• A change in the pH value of the skin

• Aggressive skin irritations (chemically or by exposure to a large number of microorganisms)

• Damage caused by aggressive scratching or scraping

• Climatic conditions (extremely high or low temperatures, increased air humidity, wind…)

Seborrheic dermatitis occurs in episodes because it is a chronic skin problem, so periods of improvement and worsening of symptoms alternate.

Aggravation of seborrheic dermatitis occurs due to:

• Fatigue, mental and physical exhaustion

• Stress

• Use of inappropriate shampoos, shower gels, soaps…

• The seasons very often determine the rhythm of the inflammatory process, so it generally worsens during the winter period.

The solution

With proper care and appropriate treatments, seborrheic dermatitis can be kept under control, without major escalations and consequences, such as hair loss. If we thoroughly approach the solution, we must start from the cause, and the main cause of seborrheic dermatitis is the increased presence of the fungus Pityrosporum ovale (Malassezia in D/SD) on the skin. Like all fungi, a moist and warm environment suits it perfectly, and since it feeds on fat, the excess sebum provides it with additional food.

Therefore, if we want to stop its reproduction and the damage it does, we should, to begin with, deprive it of what is most beneficial to it, namely moisture and food – fat.

Treatments, creams, and lotions used for seborrheic dermatitis must, first of all, have antimycotic (antifungal), degreasing, anesthetic (anti-itching), and inflammatory (anti-inflammatory) effects.

Corticosteroids and cortisol creams are very effective but are used for a very short period, so if you break through that time limit and overuse it, you can do much more harm than good to the skin.

The natural active ingredients in preparations for solving seborrheic dermatitis have no contraindications and no limited time of use, and at the same time, they have a very high level of effectiveness.

The natural active ingredients that have been proven to have the most beneficial effects are:

Marine collagen: contains a large amount of omega 3 fatty acids that have an anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, anti-redness, and soothing effect

Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifoglia): besides being antimycotic, it also has a dermopurifying effect (removes fat from the skin)

Kigelia Africana: sebonormalizes and acts directly on the sebaceous glands, regulating excessive sebum secretion, which automatically reduces the amount of food for the Pityrosporum ovale fungus.

Cajeput: a tropical plant with strong antimycotic performance

Witch hazel, sweet almond oil, oat extract, hops, and so on: they can be used continuously in the composition of skin wash, without any consequences, for a long period of time.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a red, itchy rash. It occurs as a result of skin contact with an irritating agent – it causes irritation and allergy. Contact dermatitis is an acute inflammation of the skin, caused by irritants or allergens. The first symptom is itching and rash on the skin, which ranges from erythema to the formation of blisters and rhagades.

It most often occurs on the hands or near them, but also on other uncovered parts of the body. The rash is not contagious and not life-threatening, but it can be very unpleasant and impair the quality of life. In order to approach the treatment of contact dermatitis, it is crucial to find the substances to which the sensitivity occurs and to avoid them.

How does contact dermatitis occur?

Contact dermatitis occurs as an allergic reaction caused by the irritating action of a substance. The most common irritants are soaps, detergents, dust, antiseptics, solutions, machine oil, cement, soil, water with a high concentration of chlorine (in swimming pools), certain types of cosmetics, and some plants.

Types of contact dermatitis

irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), which accounts for 80% of all causes of contact dermatitis, is a non-specific inflammatory reaction to substances with which the skin comes into contact, without activation of the immune system. First of all, various chemicals are included (acids, bleaches, salts, solutions, metals…), detergents (abrasives, gels, soaps…), shampoos, airborne substances (sawdust, wool dust…), plants (pepperoni, some types of flowers…), artificial fertilizers, pesticides.

phototoxic dermatitis occurs as a local change on application spots (perfume, coal tar…) or ingestion (example: drug Psoralen) of certain substances, which create harmful free radicals only after absorption of ultraviolet rays.

allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a reaction of cellular hypersensitivity and occurs when an agent to which a person is sensitive triggers an immune reaction on the skin. An allergic reaction affects only the area that was in contact with the allergen. The reaction can be triggered by something else that can enter the body through drugs, food, or medical and dental procedures. It has two phases: antigen sensitization and reexposure response.

Substances that cause allergic contact dermatitis are:

  • Medicines (antibiotic creams and oral antihistamines)
  • Formaldehyde (preservatives, disinfectants, clothes…)
  • Nickel (found in metal buckets, jewelry…)
  • Personal hygiene products (nail polish, hair dyes, lotions, deodorants…)
  • Substances that can be found in cosmetics, sweeteners, perfumes, dental hygiene products…
  • Plants (poison ivy, mango containing the urushiol allergen…)
  • Products that cause a reaction to the sun, some sunscreens, and oral medications…
  • In children, it occurs from wearing diapers, wet wipes, and dyed clothes…

People with increased risk factors are those who engage in certain occupations and hobbies. These are primarily health workers, construction workers, car mechanics, metal turners, hairdressers and beauticians, divers and swimmers (rubber masks), farmers, and people working with food. The rash appears within a few minutes to a few hours from contact and can last 2-4 weeks.

Symptoms of contact dermatitis are:

  • Itching
  • Red rash
  • Dry, flaky, cracked skin
  • Bumps and blisters
  • Burning sensation and swelling

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory chronic disease accompanied by dry skin that is prone to itching and irritation. The word “atopic” itself refers to a group of hereditary diseases and is often associated with other diseases. Atopic dermatitis is the most common benign disease with a recurrent course because there are phases of remission (complete recovery of all signs and symptoms) and phases of exacerbation (return of symptoms and worsening of all clinical parameters).

About 2% of the world’s population has a problem with atopic dermatitis, which means that it has a high frequency. It is not contagious and most often affects babies from the 3rd month of life, then the symptoms slowly weaken (they can disappear completely by puberty), but it can also appear at an older age.

Atopic dermatitis and eczema are often thought to be the same, but they are not. Eczema includes a large number of different inflammatory diseases, and atopic dermatitis is only one of them, i.e. the most common type, and therefore is often used in the same context.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis

The first and most common symptoms are:

  • Dry itchy skin (pruritus)
  • Scabies behind the ears and a rash on the cheeks, arms and legs
  • Red and inflamed skin because the immune system is highly activated
  • Thinned and fluffy skin from constant scratching (lichenification)
  • Hyperpigmentation and small bumps on the skin may appear, which turn into scabs and infected sores due to scratching
  • It can affect the area around the eyes, eyelids, eyebrows, and eyelashes, where scratching changes the color of the skin
  • Some people may develop an extra layer of skin, an atopic fold, or a Dennie-Morgan fold
  • The skin loses too much moisture from the epidermis and therefore becomes very, very dry, with a reduced defense mechanism
  • Skin with atopic dermatitis, due to a reduced defense mechanism, becomes very sensitive to infections with staphylococcus, streptococcus, warts, and herpes simplex…


There is no special type of prevention, but it is definitely recommended:

  • Protect the skin from moisture, irritating substances, and synthetic clothing
  • Keep a cooler, stable temperature and a stable level of humidity in the room
  • Avoid scratching, scraping, and rubbing as much as possible
  • Avoid exposure to dust, tobacco smoke, pollen, and animal hair
  • Notice in time and avoid emotional stress
  • Make the most of summer and the sea, as well as the mountains, due to the benefits of changing climate
  • Showering is recommended over bathing, but if you already use a bathtub, then instead of shower gel, put just a few drops of olive oil or marine collagen to give the skin fat and elasticity
  • Wear only cotton clothes, because everything else makes the skin itch
  • Lubricate the skin with recommended means

Atopic dermatitis in babies

All parents care that their babies’ skin is healthy, beautiful and nurtured because there is nothing more beautiful and soft than a baby’s skin. But, babies whose skin is sensitive, bright, and transparent, are much more susceptible to various irritating skin conditions, the most common of which is atopic dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis in babies is a chronic skin condition and is actually a type of eczema. It manifests as a scaly and red rash that causes inflammation and itching. According to Professor Biber, a world-renowned expert in the field of atopy, atopic dermatitis begins “in utero”, while the baby is still in the mother’s womb.

In the last decade, atopic dermatitis has been very common in babies, especially in industrialized countries. In about 60% of cases, atopic dermatitis occurs in the first year of a baby’s life, and most often in the period between 3-6 months of age. Babies who develop atopic dermatitis often have a family history of eczema, various types of allergies, and asthma… so the manifestation at an early age is most often caused by a combination of external factors and genetics. It often occurs in babies born in the winter and autumn months, more so in boys and the second child.

The first symptom of atopic dermatitis in babies is very dry, desiccated skin, which subsequently turns red and eventually develops a red rash. The most severe symptom of atopic dermatitis in babies is itching (pruritus). By scratching, the baby can injure the skin and lead to infection, so the advice and precaution are that babies wear cotton gloves. Baby itching can keep babies up all night. The baby is sleepless, crying, and in a bad mood…

Other common symptoms of atopic dermatitis in babies are:

  • Very dry skin, often covered with scales
  • Red rash and red, irritated skin
  • Sores that may be open or covered with scabs

Redness and rough skin with small pimples appear in babies on non-convex parts of the face (chin, forehead, and cheeks). A rash and redness can appear on the bends of the elbows and knees, but quite rarely.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are not always constant. Sometimes they go away, and sometimes there is a “flare-up” of atopic dermatitis. There is no specific test that would fully confirm atopic dermatitis. Babies with allergies and atopic dermatitis often have elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) in their blood. Their immune system reacts “too strongly” to certain allergy triggers and allergens, it produces more of this antibody, which can cause a reaction and lead to atopic dermatitis.

The advice to parents is, first of all, to minimize and eliminate any infection and complications. Also, regular hydration of the skin, as well as restoration of the skin’s protective hydrolipidic coating. Use very mild and non-irritating agents such as shampoos, baths, and soaps.

Atopic dermatitis in children

Atopic dermatitis in children is a chronic skin condition, a type of eczema. It manifests as a scaly and red rash that causes inflammation and itching. Atopic dermatitis is most often hereditary, so if one parent has atopic dermatitis, the chances of it occurring in the child are 30%. If both parents are atopic, the chances are increased to 70%, but still, there is a chance of up to 30% that it will not appear in the child. However, allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma may occur.

Atopic dermatitis occurs more often in boys, in the second child, and in children born in the winter and autumn months. Both in babies and in children of all ages, atopic dermatitis often occurs in industrialized countries.

The changes are mostly localized on the inner sides of the big bends (knees, elbows, behind the ears…) as brown deposits of dry and rough skin, with extremely strong itching and quite expressed scratching marks. These changes can be constant, or they can alternately appear and recede, depending on the provoking factors.

There is no specific test that would fully confirm atopic dermatitis in children. Children with allergies and atopic dermatitis often have elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) in their blood. Their immune system reacts “too strongly” to certain allergy triggers and allergens, it produces more of this antibody, which can cause a reaction and lead to atopic dermatitis.

According to Professor Biber, a world-renowned expert in the field of atopy, atopic dermatitis is a developmental progression of allergic diseases in childhood. It starts with the appearance of atopic dermatitis, followed by food allergy, then allergic asthma, and finally allergic rhinitis. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS), so-called contact urticaria – hives, can also occur. Hives are accompanied by swelling, redness, tickling, and itching of the tongue and throat, itching of the lips and palate, and swelling of the villi).

The advice to parents for a child with a problem with atopic dermatitis is, above all, to minimize and eliminate any infection and complications. Also, as advised in the case of atopic dermatitis in babies, the same applies to children. Regular hydration of the skin is necessary, as well as the restoration of the protective hydrolipidic layer of the skin. Avoiding all forms of allergens is mandatory, so use very mild and non-irritating agents such as shampoos, baths, and soaps.

Atopic dermatitis in adults

Atopic dermatitis (dermatitis atopic) in adults is a “trilogy” of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, and they can occur simultaneously, alternately, or independently of each other.

Currently, about 2% of the world’s population has various problems that can be caused by atopic dermatitis, and there is a tendency for a constant increase in people with these problems, especially in urban areas. Atopic dermatitis is the progression of the development of allergic diseases in childhood, according to Professor Biber, a world-renowned expert in the field of atopy. It all starts with the appearance of atopic dermatitis, followed by the appearance of an allergy to certain types of food ingredients, after which allergic asthma may occur, and finally, allergic rhinitis may occur.

Oral allergy syndrome (OAS), so-called contact urticaria – hives, can also occur. Hives are accompanied by swelling, redness, tickling, and itching of the tongue and throat, itching of the lips and palate, and swelling of the villi).

There are many factors that influence the occurrence of atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is most often hereditary, so if one parent has atopic dermatitis, the chances of it occurring in the child are 30%. If both parents are atopic, the chances are increased to 70%, but still, there is a chance of up to 30% that it will not appear in the child. However, allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma may occur.

Of the external factors of the environment, which can be triggering, the most common are:

  • irritants (wool, soap, grease, solvents, detergents…)
  • contact sensitizers (nickel, cobalt, chromium…)
  • inhalant allergens (house dust, dust mites, pollen, mold, animal hair…)
  • food allergens (soy, fish, wheat, peanuts, eggs…)
  • microbes (Pityrosporum ovale, Candida albicans, Staphylococus aureus, Trichophyton…)

Climate has a big influence, especially the microclimate inside the house where we live. The influence of psychological factors, such as nervousness and stress, is also very large. The mechanism of atopic dermatitis is very complex, but the essence is a disturbed interaction of immunocompetent cells (T and B lymphocytes).

In adulthood and adolescence, changes in the skin are most common in the area around the lips, the backs of the hands, and the neck. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults are:

  • dry skin
  • visible changes in the bends (elbows, knees, behind the ears…)
  • intense itching and scratch marks
  • white dermographism
  • thinning or lack of the outer part of the eyebrow
  • furrowing of the palms and soles
  • facial pallor and dark circles under the eyes

Atopy is not only a skin disease

Atopy is not a skin disease, but an innate tendency to react violently to stimuli (allergens) from the external environment and an increased tendency to develop allergic reactions. It also applies to the digestive and respiratory tracts, as well as to the mucous membrane of the nose and eyes.

Atopy is not contagious

Regardless of how bad it may seem, atopy and allergies are not contagious. Therefore, isolation due to the appearance of the skin is not necessary, even during the most severe stages of deterioration.

The best cream for atopic dermatitis

For people who have a problem with atopic dermatitis, the first and very important step is prevention, which implies special and very careful care. In atopic dermatitis, the main characteristic is a disturbed bacterial flora, i.e. damage to the skin barrier and skin function, as the largest human organ. That is why the treatment of this problem always starts with appropriate care, which should restore and repair the damaged barrier function of the skin.

For maintaining hygiene and skin washing, we recommend SAP Vital Plus. SAP is a treatment with a liquid creamy emulsion, intended for all skin types, especially atopic, dry, reactive, and couperose skin, prone to inflammation. It is an extremely gentle formulation, based on almond oil, witch hazel and oats, which cleans the skin while preserving its hydrolipidic coating and the skin’s barrier function. Effectively removes smog, dust, excess oil, and makeup.

SAP contains emollients and other nutrients, such as sweet almond oil, Altea extract, and witch hazel extract. It also contains vitamins C and E, which have a protective effect on the epidermis and protect the skin from external influences, which is essential for atopic skin. The formula contains a special surfactant, an amino acid obtained from oat extract, which makes the product soluble (dissolves fat) and water-soluble (washes off with water).

Therapy for atopic dermatitis is very diverse, and the basis for care is various moisturizing emollients, which prevent drying of the skin, and therefore tension, tightness, and itching. Emollients should be used constantly, even when the skin looks perfectly healthy, for prevention.

If atopic dermatitis is in an acute phase, under the supervision of a doctor, in addition to emollients, preparations are included that should calm the inflammatory processes on the skin – local corticosteroids (in the form of creams or ointments).

Hair Loss


Millions of men and women suffer from hair loss today. Regardless of how common it may be, it is undoubtedly a stressful experience for both sexes. Often, people who suffer from hair loss experience problems such as a dramatic drop in self-confidence, feeling less attractive, withdrawing from themselves, and even depression.

Hair loss

Hair loss (alopecia) can affect your scalp or your entire body, and it may be temporary or permanent. There is usually no cause for concern when it comes to hair loss, but it may be a sign of a medical condition occasionally. Heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions, or aging can cause it. The loss of hair on the head can happen to anyone, but it is more common in men. Hormones are to blame: Androgens or male sex hormones stimulate growth of body hair and sebum production, and inhibit hair growth on the scalp. On the other hand, estrogens – female sex hormones stimulate hair growth on the scalp, and inhibit sebum production and body hair growth.

In most cases, baldness refers to excessive hair loss from the scalp. Male and female pattern baldness is a permanent type of hair loss. Usually, this type of hair loss runs in families. Baldness is most commonly caused by hereditary hair loss with aging. There are people who prefer to let their hair loss run its course untreated and unhidden. Some people may cover it up with hairstyles, makeup, hats, or scarves. In addition, others choose one of the treatments available to prevent further hair loss or to restore hair growth.

There are two main causes of hair loss that with the right treatment can be almost completely avoided:

  • As we age, it’s just a part of life
  • The hair will grow back, it’s only temporary

The loss of hair caused by a medical condition usually stops or grows back after you have recovered. But with a correct treatment the recovery can be better or in some cases can be completely reversed.  There are many ways in which hair loss can appear, depending on what causes it. The condition can appear suddenly or gradually and can affect your scalp or your whole body. Consult your doctor or specialized consultant about the cause and treatment options of your hair loss before pursuing treatment.

Signs of hair loss

The average person loses 70-125 hairs a day. Due to the fact that most people have about 100,000 hairs on their heads, it’s very hard to notice. It is normal for our hair to thin as we age. Hormonal changes, certain medical conditions, and medications can also cause hair loss.

The signs of hair loss can take many forms. The following may be noticed:

  • The part is being widened
  • An area of baldness that grows slowly
  • A ponytail that is thinner
  • Your hair is gradually thinned
  • Increasingly visible receding hairline

The signs of hair loss tend to appear gradually in millions of people. The signs of hair loss can be subtle, so you may not notice them for months or years.

Hair loss symptoms and signs

Some people develop symptoms and other signs of hair loss, in addition to less hair. In addition to hair loss, you may also experience:

  • Symptoms such as redness, swelling, and sores that itch and leak pus – Folliculitis decalvans is known to cause this.
  • Itching, burning, and tenderness in the area where you lose your hair – These symptoms may indicate an infection.
  • Bald patches with sores or blisters that ooze pus – These are signs of a fungal infection on the scalp.
  • Before sudden hair loss, there may be burning or stinging – Some people with alopecia areata experience this.
  • Psoriasis patches on the scalp – Most people with psoriasis get them on their scalp at some point, causing temporary hair loss.

You will experience different signs and symptoms depending on what is causing your hair loss.

Hair loss – the cause and manifestations

There are many reasons why hair falls out. Your hair loss can be caused by a variety of factors, and can occur in various ways:

  • Hair cannot regrow on its own
  • Hair becomes thinner as time passes
  • Gradually or suddenly hair falls out

If that happens its necessary to use a treatment to regrow hairs, because a permanent hair loss can be prevented only with immediate care. If your hair part is widening, you see bald spots, or you lose more than 125 hairs a day, you may be experiencing hair loss and should see a dermatologist or specialized consultant.

As said above there are several possible causes and types of hair loss. In spite of the fact that it is not always possible to prevent hair loss, if you see a dermatologist or specialized consultant early enough, you might be able to get treatment and try to get the best possible outcome. As we said there are many reasons why people lose their hair and below, we will go through some of them.

Bad hair care habits damage hair

It is possible to damage your hair if you color or perm it. Hair loss can result from this damage over time. Also, you should treat your hair with a product that contains only natural ingredients. Do not use shampoos that contain a long list of harsh chemicals. Despite its natural ingredients, shampoos do little to protect your hair against day-to-day damage and the elements.

Hair conditioner doesn’t just wash away oil and grime as shampoo does. Too many styling products contain harsh ingredients that not only dry and damage your hair but also leave your hair thick and crunchy. In addition, hair gels, pomades, and waxes are absorbed much more deeply into your scalp than shampoos and conditioners. When you use a product with potentially harmful ingredients, those chemicals will penetrate your hair follicles and negatively affect your hair growth.

Hair loss caused by sexually transmitted infection

HIV and syphilis are the only STDs that cause hair loss. However, hair loss is not a “typical” symptom of either disease. Since HIV attacks and inhibits the body’s immune system, it can lead to a number of opportunistic infections. Due to this, HIV-positive people are at risk for conditions like Telogen Effluvium (TE). In such a case, hair loss could even be extreme – it could come out in handfuls. It is possible for people who have HIV to develop diffuse alopecia as well. Nonetheless, less than 10% of HIV patients experience this symptom.

Treponema pallidum causes syphilis, a bacterial infection characterized by painless sores around the area of infection – typically in the rectum, the groin, or the mouth – at the beginning of the four distinct stages of the infection. Antibiotics can easily prevent this primary phase from progressing if diagnosed quickly. Syphilis can cause patchy hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows, beard, and elsewhere if left untreated.

Traction alopecia

Continuously pulling your hair back can lead to permanent hair loss if you wear it tightly pulled back. The medical term for this condition is traction alopecia. If you frequently wear your hair in a tight ponytail, bun, or braid, especially if you use chemicals or heat on it, you may develop this condition. The traction alopecia condition can be reversed if you stop pulling your hair back.

Unless your hair follicles have been permanently damaged, traction alopecia can usually be reversed, according to the British Association of Dermatologists. It is possible to reverse traction alopecia if you take preventive measures early on. You are more likely to prevent irreversible damage by treating hair loss symptoms early. Make an appointment with a medical professional today to get started on your journey to a fuller head of hair.

Hair loss happens as we age

You have a 25% chance of balding by the age of 30. Also, 50% of men have noticeable hair loss by the age of 50. By the time they reach 60, two-thirds of the population are either balding or showing signs of balding. Even though hair loss is more common as you age, it does not necessarily make it easier to accept. If you are suffering from hair loss, it is never too late to take action. Whatever stage you’re at, there are solutions that can help.

Because hair growth slows with age, most people notice some hair loss. Hair follicles stop growing hair at some point, causing our scalp hair to thin. The color of the hair also starts to fade. It is natural for a woman’s hairline to recede over time. Hereditary factors, hormonal changes, medical conditions, or aging can cause it. Men are more likely to lose hair on their heads than women. A bald head is usually a result of excessive hair loss. Baldness is most often caused by hereditary hair loss with age.

Hereditary hair loss (androgenic alopecia)

The condition is referred to as androgenic alopecia, regardless of whether it occurs in men or women. This type of hair loss affects both men and women, making it the most common cause of hair loss worldwide. Male pattern hair loss occurs in men. Female pattern hair loss occurs in women.

In either case, it means you have inherited genes that cause your hair follicles (what each hair grows from) to shrink and eventually stop producing hair. The process of shrinking can start as early as your teens, but it usually begins later in life.

A receding hairline or bald spot at the top of a man’s head is the first sign of hereditary hair loss. A widening part or overall thinning are usually the first signs of hereditary hair loss in women.

Hair loss and alopecia areata

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition that often results in unpredictable hair loss. In the United States, it affects approximately 6.8 million people. Globally, it affects 147 million people. Hair usually falls out in small patches about the size of a quarter. Despite the small patches, alopecia areata can affect wide areas of the scalp.

Alopecia areata occurs when the immune system attacks hair follicles (which hold the hair in place), causing hair loss. The first signs of alopecia areata are typically small bald patches. The underlying skin appears normal and unscarred. They usually have a round or oval shape, although they can take on many shapes. Most commonly, alopecia areata affects the scalp and beard, but it can affect any part of the body with hair.

Scarring hair loss disorders (Scarring alopecia)

Cicatricial alopecia, or scarring, is an inflammatory condition that destroys hair follicles, causing scarring and permanent hair loss. Hair follicles cannot grow hair once they have been destroyed. This can be caused by a variety of conditions. This group of conditions is known as cicatricial alopecia. In most cases, corticosteroids are used to treat scarring alopecia, such as lichen planopilaris and pseudopelade, which are characterized by lymphocyte inflammation of hair follicles.

Scarring alopecia can lead to permanent hair loss. Due to this, scarring alopecia should be treated aggressively. There is a wide variety of treatment options depending on the particular diagnosis. If scarring alopecia has reached the burnt-out stage and there has been no more hair loss for a few years, bald patches can either be surgically removed or transplanted with hair follicles taken from unaffected areas.

Hair loss caused by scalp psoriasis

People with plaque psoriasis often develop psoriasis on their scalps. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder in which skin cells form more rapidly than they should. During inflammation, these skin cells pile up on each other, causing silver or red itchy plaques to form. Hair follicles can become weak and brittle when inflammation increases. When psoriasis is combined with an itchy, dry scalp, you might feel inclined to scratch or pick at the scales.

Psoriasis of the scalp can cause temporary hair loss. Itching caused by scaling may be relieved by scratching your head. You may lose your hair as a result of that. Hair loss may also occur when the scales are forcefully removed to treat psoriasis. When scalp psoriasis is controlled, most people with hair loss experience complete regrowth of their hair. It is critical to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as scarring from psoriasis (common in long-term scalp psoriasis) can cause permanent hair loss.

Hair loss and thyroid disorders          

Thyroid conditions occur when your thyroid gland either produces too much or too little of certain hormones. It is possible to see thinning hair if you have thyroid problems. Untreated thyroid conditions can cause hair loss if they are severe. With hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, hair loss may develop slowly. There won’t necessarily be bald patches or patches missing. Rather, your hair may appear thinner all over.

Hair loss caused by thyroid conditions is typically temporary. It is possible to experience hair loss even after starting drugs to treat your condition. Many people worry that drugs are causing hair loss, but it may have more to do with the hair’s life cycle. Within several months of treatment, hair growth may be noticeable. The new hair growth may differ in color or texture from your original hair.

Hair loss caused by medication

Hair loss is a possible side effect of some medications. If you suspect a medication is causing your hair loss, ask the doctor who prescribed it if it causes hair loss. Don’t stop taking the medication before consulting your doctor. There are serious health risks associated with suddenly stopping some medications.

Medicines are designed to treat a variety of health conditions, but they sometimes have unwanted side effects. Some drugs can cause excessive hair growth, changes in hair color or texture, or hair loss. Any type of hair loss, including drug-induced hair loss, can affect your self-esteem. Fortunately, in most cases, it’s reversible once the drug is stopped.

Chemotherapy and hair loss

Within a few weeks of starting chemotherapy or radiation treatment for your head or neck, you may lose all (or most) of your hair. You may lose hair all over your body after chemotherapy, not just on your scalp. Eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic hair, armpits, and other body hair can also fall out. There are some chemotherapy drugs that are more likely to cause hair loss than others, and different doses can lead to anything from mere thinning to complete baldness.

Once your chemotherapy treatment is over, your hair will grow back unless you had very high doses of certain chemotherapy drugs. Hair may take longer to grow back in some people after treatment with a type of chemotherapy called docetaxel. Some people may experience permanent hair loss. This is rare and usually depends on the dose you’ve taken and how long you’ve taken it. If you are concerned about this, talk to your doctor.

Losing hair from stress

It’s no secret that stress levels are high, and for some, that may mean fewer hairs on their heads. Several types of hair loss have been linked to significant emotional stress, including telogen effluvium. The way you handle stress can have an impact on your hair loss. Having a stressful life event and not seeking help could further cause hair loss.

After surgery or illness, you may notice more hairs on your brush or on your pillow. It can also happen after a stressful event in your life, such as a divorce or the death of a loved one. Dermatologists should be consulted if you experience chronic hair loss, patchy hair loss, or hair loss that is accompanied by redness, itchiness, or pain.

Hair loss caused by hormone imbalance

Temporary hair loss can be caused by hormonal imbalance, which can have severe consequences. Hair loss is primarily caused by hormonal imbalance in men. The male hormone testosterone is responsible for severe hair loss. In the hair follicles, an enzyme called 5 alpha-reductase converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Hormonal imbalances can cause hair loss or hair thinning in men and women. In many cases, treating the imbalance will help your hair grow back. The thyroid can also cause hair thinning, although most people think of estrogen or testosterone when they think of hormone imbalances. Menopause can also trigger hormonal hair loss in women because it affects the production of many hormones. As soon as your hormonal imbalance is corrected, your hair should start growing again. You’ll also probably feel more energetic and better overall.

Infections that cause hair loss

Infections of the scalp can cause scaly and sometimes inflamed areas. There are a number of illnesses and infections that can cause hair loss. Hair thinning or balding is caused by fungal skin infections, infections that cause a high fever, and bacterial infections like syphilis. Hair growth can be restored and future hair loss can be prevented by treating the underlying infection.

Hair loss can be caused by a variety of scalp conditions. Folliculitis, ringworm, piedra, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis of the scalp are the most common causes of hair loss. Furthermore, you can lose hair across your scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes due to a fungal infection or yeast infection on your head. In the event of a primary health problem, seek medical attention first.

Lack of protein, iron, biotin, or zinc in food

Overall hair health can be improved by eating foods rich in vitamins and minerals. Hair loss can occur if you don’t get enough of one or more of these nutrients.

Biotin (vitamin B7) is widely available in foods, meaning that deficiency is rare among healthy individuals. Fish, meat, eggs, nuts, seeds, and vegetables are the best natural sources of biotin. The deficiency of biotin can cause brittle nails, rashes on the skin, as well as hair loss or hair thinning. The vitamin B7 plays an important role in the production of keratin.

Iron deficiency can cause hair loss in both males and females. According to a study published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science, iron may not only contribute to hair loss, but may also contribute to genetic male- and female-pattern baldness.

Protein deficiency can sometimes result in hair loss. People who follow crash diets that exclude protein or who have abnormal eating habits may suffer from protein malnutrition. During this time, the body will shift growing hairs into the resting phase in order to conserve protein.

Zinc plays a critical role in hair tissue repair and growth. Furthermore, it contributes to the proper functioning of the oil glands surrounding the follicles. When zinc levels are low, hair loss is a common symptom. It has been shown that supplementing zinc may reduce hair loss associated with zinc deficiency.

Hair loss due to poisoning

When consumed in less than lethal doses, certain poisons can cause hair loss. Many times, hair loss is the first sign of poisoning. It is possible to lose your hair slowly if you are poisoned. Among the poisons that can cause hair loss are lithium, mercury, thallium, and arsenic. For example, rat poisons contain warfarin, which can also cause hair loss if consumed in large quantities. Hair loss can also be caused by taking excessive amounts of vitamin A or selenium.

Gold, cadmium, mercury, bismuth, lithium, thallium, and arsenic are poisonous metal salts and heavy metals. Inhalation or ingestion of them can cause hair loss when exposed to them for a prolonged period of time in industrial settings. As a result, organic forms of metal salts tend to be more readily absorbed, more slowly eliminated, and more toxic than inorganic forms.

The use of arsenic can be found in the manufacture of glass, metal refining, silicon chip manufacturing, insecticides, rat poisons, fungicides, and wood preservatives. The consumption of mercury-containing seafood, as well as exposure to mercury-containing medications, paints, fungicides, and industrial products, can cause mercury poisoning.

Hair loss after corona

COVID-19 can cause a wide range of symptoms in people. The loss of hair has been reported in those who have recovered from COVID-19. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), hair loss is a potential long-term effect of COVID-19.

COVID-19 may cause hair loss in people with severe cases. Currently, it is unclear whether this is true and the biological mechanism behind it. Following COVID-19, hair loss is consistent with a condition called telogen effluvium (TE). TE patients report sudden hair loss. Brushing or showering usually causes large clumps of hair to fall out.

Hair loss is usually noticeable 2 to 3 months after a triggering event in people who develop TE. It usually affects less than half of the scalp and lasts between 6 and 9 months. It is common for people to regrow their hair after this period.

Telogen effluvium (TE) can be triggered by an acute illness with fever. People who have COVID-19 often experience fever as one of their symptoms. Hair grows in different phases, as we all know. When a stressor occurs, a large amount of hair stops growing and enters the resting phase (telogen).

It is also possible for TE to be triggered by stress. Stress can certainly be experienced both physically and emotionally when you suffer from an illness such as COVID-19. Quarantining has also been associated with some cases of TE. Hair rests for two to three months in the telogen phase before being shed from the scalp to allow new hair to grow. A highly stressful period or illness triggers TE hair loss so long after the event, which is why it happens long after the event.

How to prevent hair loss

In addition to affecting your appearance, losing your hair can also cause emotional stress and lower your self-esteem. However, there are a few things you can do to stop hair loss.

Take vitamins: Healthy-looking hair is often viewed as a sign of good health or beauty. In order to stay healthy and grow, your hair needs a variety of nutrients. A number of vitamins and minerals can have an effect on hair growth, such as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, iron, and zinc. Supplements containing biotin and zinc are prescribed by some medical professionals to maintain healthy hair, skin, and muscle tissue.

Eat extra protein: Insufficient protein can affect hair growth if you don’t get enough each day. In particular, vegans and vegetarians may need to eat more protein. The recommended daily amount of protein is 40 to 60 grams, and you may drink it rather than eating it. Eggs, Greek yogurt, beans, and legumes are also good sources of protein.

Maintain good hair and scalp care: You should avoid harsh hair treatments like hair dye, heating tools, and bleaching. As well as tight ponytails and braids, tight hairstyles can cause damage to your hair. Regularly washing your hair and scalp will keep your scalp healthy. Taking care of your scalp can improve its health, give you peace of mind, and even boost your confidence.

Shampoo against hair loss

When we notice signs of hair loss, we become self-conscious and search for the best products and treatments available. Beware of hair loss products and treatments that are scams. We want to make sure you don’t get scammed and that the products you buy really work.

How effective is hair loss shampoo?

Several hair growth solutions claim to help you regrow a full head of hair. However, which ones are authentic and which are fake? The best way to identify a fake is to read their claims. A product that claims to regrow your hair “instantly” or “quickly” should be avoided. Since hair growth is a slow process, any product that promises to help you regrow it quickly is a scam.

When you have a scalp condition, such as sebum in the hair follicle, liquified sebum in the follicle, seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff or psoriasis, that causes hair loss, you have to be aware that the follicle entrance and the follicle are occluded and these must be removed first.

Hair loss shampoos are products that remain on the scalp just for a few minutes during hair wash and as such have a very limited efficiency. A shampoo can’t solve a problem of hair loss, but a wrong shampoo can create an anomaly on the scalp and this way help enhance the problem of hair loss.

A shampoo is a detergent for the hair that doesn’t penetrate in the follicle as it is not dermocosmetically functional and its base is made of water and not essential and vegetal oils. Secondly a shampoo contains tensioactive ingredients (the ones that create foam) that also prevent the product to penetrate the hair follicle. Thirds as said above remains on the scalp for just a few minutes and as such can’t have any real function.  

Bottom line a hair loss shampoo is basically a product that has no real function on hair loss. It sells very well because it’s the most accessible because of the lower price compared to lotions, ampules and food supplements.

Instead of using a hair loss shampoo advised to have a check-up with a dermatologist or specialized consultant that can evaluate the problem, the causes and other anomalies present on the scalp.  

Hair loss treatments

There are many scams out there, but there are also many effective hair loss treatments. Don’t wait to seek help if you’re experiencing hair loss. In order to prevent irreversible damage to your hair, you should address the symptoms of hair loss as soon as possible. To begin your journey to a fuller head of hair, speak with a medical professional today.

It is possible for both men and women to lose their hair at any age. Some people experience it earlier than others. Our hair grows slower as we age. There are several causes of hair loss, and this is just one of them. There are also genetic factors and certain types of alopecia which can occur for a variety of reasons. When signs of hair loss occur, people begin searching for products and treatments. In order to find real products and real treatments, you should be thorough in your search and use reliable websites and doctors.

The best shampoo against hair loss

Choosing a shampoo should be based on the type of hair you have. It is important to choose a shampoo that is organic or herbal and does not contain harmful chemicals to prevent hair damage. With different options for every type of hair, organic and herbal shampoo categories attract everyone’s attention.

Every individual faces the problem of hair loss due to seasonal changes and daily stress. Shampoo and serum are recommended for treating hair loss. Organic and herbal ingredients should be considered when choosing shampoo and serum against hair loss. The use of products containing bad ingredients can increase hair loss rather than prevent it.

Hair loss spray

Clinical trials have shown that some hair loss sprays are very effective at treating hair loss. Efficacy varies from person to person, as with any medication. The earlier you begin treatment for hair loss, the greater your chances of success. Other spray options on the market contain natural ingredients, like rosemary or ginger extract. In order to promote hair growth, these ingredients are believed to stimulate blood circulation. However, there is limited research on their effectiveness.

One small study suggested rosemary essential oil may be very effective. Despite its small size and short duration, this study was well conducted. It is important to be cautious if you have sensitive skin, as these ingredients can irritate it. If you do decide to try a natural hair growth spray and notice that you suddenly have an itchy scalp, stop using the spray and contact a healthcare professional immediately.

Natural sprays can also be used to nourish your skin. These sprays are all considered to promote healthy scalps and hair growth. Talk to your healthcare provider if you’re interested in finding the best treatment option for your specific case of hair loss or thicker hair.

Minerals and vitamins for hair loss

The best source of vitamins for hair growth is food. Supplements may be helpful if you do not get enough nutrients from your diet. Those who are already deficient benefit the most from supplements, according to research. A balanced, real-food-based diet that includes plenty of nutrient-dense foods is the best way to get these nutrients.

For hair to grow and stay healthy, it needs a variety of nutrients. Hair loss is often caused by nutritional deficiencies. In addition to age, genetics, and hormones, optimal nutrient intake also affects hair growth. If you are not deficient in vitamins and minerals, large doses can be harmful. Make sure you check with your doctor if you have a deficiency. Here are 5 vitamins and 3 other nutrients that may be beneficial to hair growth.

Vitamin A (retinol)

Vitamin A (retinol, retinoic acid) is necessary for vision, growth, cell division, reproduction, and immunity. Antioxidant properties are also associated with vitamin A. Free radicals, which are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation, might damage your cells when you consume antioxidants. Among other diseases, free radicals may contribute to heart disease and cancer.

Vitamin A is essential for the growth of all cells. This includes hair, which grows at the fastest rate in the human body. Vitamin A also helps the skin glands produce an oily substance called sebum. Sebum moisturizes the scalp and keeps hair healthy. A diet lacking in vitamin A can cause several problems, including hair loss.

It’s important to get enough vitamin A, but not too much. Hair loss can also be caused by too much vitamin A, according to studies. A recommended daily intake of vitamin A for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) for men and 700 mcg for women.

Among the foods that are high in beta-carotene are sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, spinach, and kale. Animal products such as milk, eggs, and yogurt contain vitamin A as well. A good source of omega-3 fatty acids is cod liver oil.

B vitamins

There are eight B vitamins in the vitamin B complex:

  • B1 (thiamine)
  • B2 (riboflavin)
  • B3 (niacin)
  • B5 (pantothenic acid)
  • B6 (pyridoxine)
  • B7 (biotin)
  • B9 (folic acid)
  • B12 (cobalamin)

A B7 vitamin called biotin is one of the best-known vitamins for hair growth. Biotin is a form of vitamin B7 that assists enzymes in breaking down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. There are many benefits to taking biotin for your health. Besides helping convert food into energy, it is also necessary to create keratin, which makes up nails, skin, and hair.

In humans, biotin deficiency is associated with hair loss. Although biotin can be used to treat hair loss, those who are deficient have the best results. Due to its natural presence in many foods, deficiency is rare. Biotin is also very effective in the treatment of dandruff as it fights skin flaking from inside and promotes overall skin health.

Other B vitamins carry oxygen and nutrients to the scalp and hair follicles through red blood cells. Hair growth depends on these processes. In addition, each of these vitamins contributes to the overall health of your body.

Many foods contain B vitamins, including dark leafy salmon, whole grains, meat, seafood, nuts, seeds, almonds, etc. Vitamin B12 can only be found in animal foods. If you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, consider taking a supplement.

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid)

Many foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid), a water-soluble vitamin. Damage caused by free radicals can slow down hair growth and cause it to age. Vitamin C protects against free radical-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, vitamin C is necessary for the body to create collagen, a protein crucial to hair growth.

The symptoms of a deficiency include higher susceptibility to infections, bleeding gums, frequent bruising and infections, poor wound healing, anemia, and scurvy. The vitamin C in your body also helps your body absorb iron, a mineral necessary for hair growth. In addition to collagen synthesis, vitamin C is essential for connective tissue, bones, teeth, and small blood vessels. Joints and skin elasticity are also maintained by collagen. In your bones, muscles, and blood, it makes up three-quarters of your skin and one-third of your protein.

It contributes to immune function, neurotransmitter production, collagen synthesis, and other functions in the body. You may reduce your risk of heart disease by getting enough vitamin C in your diet

Vitamin C is found in many fruits and vegetables, but it can also be obtained as a dietary supplement. Strawberries, peppers, guavas, and citrus fruits are all good sources of vitamin C.

Vitamin D

Low levels of vitamin D are associated with alopecia, the technical term for hair loss. In most research, vitamin D receptors are the focus of research on vitamin D’s role in hair production. Vitamin D levels should be adequate no matter what your age or stage of life is. According to my research, people with low vitamin D levels are more likely to suffer a heart attack, heart failure, stroke, diabetes, or high blood pressure later in life.

When your skin is exposed to the sun, your body produces vitamin D. However, several factors limit its production:

  • Changes in absorption ability with age
  • Being naturally dark-skinned
  • Using sunscreen to prevent melanoma
  • If you live above 33 degrees latitude

Most people may need to take vitamins to achieve a normal level of vitamin D in their blood because the amount of sun they would need is probably greater than what is safe for their skin. The body benefits from either form of vitamin D (D2 or D3), but very few foods contain it naturally or are fortified with it. To make up for the difference, doctors recommend supplements.

Sardines, egg yolks, cod liver oil, salmon, mackerel, tuna, shitake mushrooms, and others are good sources of vitamin D. Vitamin D is often added to milk, infant formula, yogurt, orange juice, breakfast cereals, margarine, cheese, and butter.

Vitamin E

Foods such as nuts, seeds, and leafy green vegetables naturally contain vitamin E. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in many bodily processes. Studies have proven that it prevents scars because it is good for the skin, hair, and nails. Since vitamin E has antioxidant properties, it may contribute to maintaining healthy hair and scalp.

The antioxidant properties of vitamin E may reduce oxidative stress and free radicals that break down the hair follicle cells on a person’s scalp. It is used to treat and prevent diseases of the heart and blood vessels, such as hardening of the arteries, heart attacks, chest pains, strokes, irregular heartbeats (atrial fibrillation), heart failure, and leg pain from blocked arteries, and high blood pressure. The use of vitamin E has also been found to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.

The benefits of vitamin E for hair health have been widely reported, but many of these claims lack rigorous scientific evidence. A study found that supplementing with vitamin E for 8 months increased hair growth by 34.5% in people with hair loss. Compared to the placebo group, the increase was only 0.1%.

The best way to get the most benefit from vitamin E is to take it with food. Many foods contain it, including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat germ oil. You can also buy it as a supplement.


Red blood cells carry oxygen to your cells with the help of iron. As a result, it is important for many bodily functions, including hair growth. The loss of hair can occur naturally as you age, but it can also be caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially in women under 50. To keep your hair and skin healthy, boost your iron intake (through lean beans, nuts or meats).

It is very important to get enough iron for hair growth and health, and most hair loss caused by iron deficiency is not permanent. Anemia, which causes iron deficiency, is a major contributor to hair loss. Women are more likely to suffer from it. Your body needs iron to produce hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells. By carrying oxygen to your body’s cells, it helps them grow and repair. Cells in your body that promote hair growth are included in this category.

A doctor should be consulted if you’ve experienced hair loss due to an iron deficiency. It is possible to determine if you have low iron levels by taking a blood test. A well-balanced diet can help you get the recommended amount of iron each day. Choose iron-rich foods like peas, spinach, broccoli, tofu, and meats like lamb and beef.

A lack of iron prevents your body from making hemoglobin in your blood. As part of the process of growing and repairing your body’s cells, hemoglobin transports oxygen to the cells that stimulate hair growth. Hair loss and iron deficiency can both be reversed with treatment.


Zinc deficiency can be managed by absorbing more from food and excreting less. An inadequate intake of zinc, however, will have a negative impact on bodily functions. There are many symptoms of zinc deficiency, including hair loss, deformed nails, canker sores, and rashes. Zinc deficiency affects one-third of the world’s population, making it a global health problem.

More than 90 enzymes require zinc to function. Vegans and vegetarians are more likely to suffer from zinc deficiency. Plants and seeds naturally contain phytic acid, which binds to zinc and reduces its absorption. The human body is not designed to produce or store zinc, so it must be obtained from food or supplements.

In order to grow and repair hair tissue, zinc is important. Additionally, it keeps the oil glands around the follicles functioning properly. Hair loss is one of the most common symptoms of zinc deficiency. Supplementation may reduce deficiency-related hair loss if zinc deficiency is resolved.

A high dose of supplements has also been reported to contribute to hair loss, according to anecdotal reports. Due to this, whole foods may provide you with more zinc. Lobsters crabs, and oysters are excellent sources of zinc, which is essential for health. Fish, red meat, chickpeas, beans, and lentils are also high in zinc.


Hair is almost entirely made of protein. Keratin, a type of protein found in hair follicles, is the building block of hair. Because hair follicles are mostly made up of protein, eating enough protein is important for hair growth. Protein deficiency in the diet has been linked to hair loss. Protein deficiency can cause a large number of strands to enter the resting phase at the same time, resulting in hair loss.

Low-protein diets slow hair growth, causing hair loss and decreased hair growth. When you do not consume enough protein, your body will ration the quantity available by cutting off the supply to the hair follicles. For tissue repair and new tissue construction, every cell needs protein. Without enough protein, your hair will become dry and brittle.

The importance of protein for hair health

Proteins are essential to the growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues in our bodies. There are a number of factors that can contribute to hair loss, including prolonged protein deficiency. When protein is lacking in the body, vital organs are immediately protected by the body. Hair doesn’t play a significant role in survival, so it is the first to go. In other words, a lack of protein will result in heavy hair loss because the body deems it unnecessary to provide valuable protein to hair.

Protein nutrition is determined by the amount of essential amino acids it contains. The amount of essential amino acids in different foods varies. There are many foods that are good sources of protein, such as eggs, white-meat poultry, lean beef, fish, seafood, fat-free or low-fat cheese, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, lean pork, and beans. In general, vegetarians and vegans can get enough protein by eating a variety of foods.

















Ringworm: what is it?

When you have ringworm, you may think you have worms in your skin or a worm-related disease. No, you don’t. A ringworm infection is caused by a fungus, not worms.

It is likely that the name “ringworm” comes from the rash that many people see. Rashes often have a ring-shaped pattern on the skin and a raised, scaly border that snakes around the edge.

Ringworm can appear anywhere on your body. A ring-shaped pattern does not appear on the scalp, palms, nails, groin, or soles. When it occurs on the groin and soles, it has another name.

The treatment of ringworm is important no matter where it appears on the body. If left untreated, the rash tends to grow slowly and cover a larger area. Other parts of your body can also be infected. Itching can be intense when ringworm is present, but treatment can relieve it. Due to the contagious nature of ringworm, it can also be prevented from spreading to others.

Ringworm symptoms and signs

A ringworm infection is caused by a fungus. There are many places on your body where you can get ringworm. In most cases, it causes ring-shaped patches on the skin. Ringworm, however, appears differently when it grows on the feet (bottoms and sides), scalp palms, nails, beard area, or groin.

Skin with ringworm infection (Tinea corporis)

Like other forms of tinea, tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the body. Dermatophytosis (or ringworm) occurs on the arms and legs, especially if the skin is glabrous. This condition, however, can be found anywhere on the skin that is superficial.

A fungus known as dermatophyte causes tinea corporis. The disease can also be transmitted from person to person through direct skin contact with an infected individual. In addition, animal-to-human transmission is common. By touching contaminated athletic gear, personal care products, combs, bed linen, or hair brushes, the fungus can also be spread.

The most common symptoms of a fungal skin infection are:

  • Patches can be extremely itchy
  • In some cases, patches can grow slowly, increasing in size and spreading to more sites
  • Round-shaped, flat patches with a raised, scaly border
  • Patches on colored skin are usually brown or gray
  • Light-colored skin tends to have reddish or pink patches
  • It is usually the center of a patch that clears first

Feet with ringworm infection – athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis)

Athlete’s foot is caused by a fungus and is medically called tinea pedis. Symptoms may include redness, cracking, itching, and scaling. Some cases may result in blisters on the skin. Athlete’s foot fungus may grow anywhere on the foot, but is most commonly found between the toes.

The fungi that cause athlete’s foot include Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. Most commonly, the condition is acquired by coming into contact with infected skin, or by coming into contact with fungus in the environment. Swimming pools and locker rooms are common places where the fungi can live.

The most common symptoms of a fungal feet infection are:

  • It usually begins between the toes and spreads to the bottom of the foot, sides, or both
  • It is possible to spread the infection to your hands by touching an infected foot
  • In between your toes and on your soles, there is itching, burning, and stinging
  • Red and scaly patches of skin, blisters, painful cracks, and bleeding
  • The skin peels off
  • An unpleasant smell
  • Between the toes, the skin becomes soft and mushy

Hand with ringworm infection (Tinea manuum)

Tinea manuum is a fungal infection of the hand, usually a type of dermatophytosis. Both hands may be affected, and the rash may be different on each hand, with palmer creases turning whitish if the infection has been present for some time. The area can be itchy and look slightly raised. It is possible that your nails will be affected as well.

Scaling is present on the palms or backs of one hand, and the palmer creases are more prominent. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common cause. If you touch another part of the body with a fungal infection, such as an athlete’s foot or fungal infection of the groin, or you come into contact with an infected person or animal, or you touch the soil, or contaminated towels, you may contract the infection.

The most common symptoms of a fungal hand infection are:

  • Hands with ring-shaped patches
  • The palms are covered with dry, cracked skin
  • Palms with deep cracks
  • Touching your feet may cause an athlete’s foot
  • There is a possibility that the infection will spread to the fingernails (see below).
  • Often mistaken for dry, thick skin or extremely dry skin

Nails with ringworm infection (Tinea unguium)

Infection of the nails by fungus, onychomycosis is known as tinea unguium. Nails may become discolored, thicken, and separate from the nail bed if they become white or yellow. Fingernails and toenails may be affected, but toenails are more commonly affected. Lower leg cellulitis can be a potential complication.     

Onychomycosis is caused by a variety of fungi, including Dermatophytes and Fusarium. People with athlete’s foot, other nail diseases, peripheral vascular disease, and poor immune function are at risk. About 10 percent of adult populations are affected by onychomycosis, particularly older adults. It is more common in males than in females.

The most common symptoms of a fungal nail infection are:

  • Cracked nails
  • The infection can spread to more than one nail
  • It begins with the thickening of the nail bed (nail bed tissue).
  • It commonly develops in people who have athlete’s foot for a long period of time
  • If the nails are thickened, they may lift from the nail bed
  • Nails disappearing (with time, you’ll see fewer nails)
  • Discoloration and thickening of the nails
  • Infected toenails are more common than infected fingernails

Groin with ringworm infection – jock itch (Tinea cruris)

Known as jock itch, tinea cruris is a contagious, superficial fungal infection of the groin region that occurs most commonly in men and in warm, humid climates. There is typically a red raised rash over upper inner thighs that is intensely itchy and scaly with a curved border.

Sports clothing or towels contaminated with infected fungi are often found in this area. It is often associated with athletes’ foot or fungal nail infections. Children are unlikely to be affected by it. Symptoms of inverse psoriasis, erythrasma, seborrheic dermatitis, and candidal intertrigo may be similar to those of fungal groin infection. In order to determine what kind of problem you have; it may be necessary to microscopically examine skin scrapings or to culture them.

The most common symptoms of a fungal groin infection are:

  • An initial sign: The crease between the leg and the body is red (brown or gray in dark skin) and swollen.
  • Itchy and painful skin can be caused by an infection, but it is not always the case
  • Skin that is infected often feels scaly and has raised borders
  • Rash spreads to the groin, then slowly spreads to the inner thighs, waist, and buttocks
  • Cracks, flakiness, and peeling can occur on the skin

Beard area with ringworm infection (Tinea Barbae)

Fungal infections of the hair are called tinea barbae. Tinea barbae is caused by a dermatophytic infection around the bearded area of men. Generally, the infection appears as a follicular inflammation or granulomatous lesion on the skin. This is one of the causes of folliculitis. The disease is more common among agricultural workers, as it is transmitted more frequently from animal to human than human to human.

Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum are the most common causes. It is possible to contract the infection from infected animal hair on the skin of a human occasionally.

The most common symptoms of a fungal beard area infection are:

  • Redness and swelling are intense
  • Fatigue and exhaustion can be felt
  • Lymph nodes that are swollen
  • The appearance of acne, folliculitis, or another skin condition
  • Bumpy skin filled with pus
  • A loss of hair (hair often grows back after ringworm is treated)
  • Open, raw skin
  • Fluid-weeping soft, spongy skin

Scalp ringworm (Tinea capitis)

Tinea capitis (also known as “scalp ringworm”, “ringworm of the hair”, “ringworm of the scalp”, “herpes tonsurans”, and “tinea tonsurans”) is a type of dermatophytosis that affects the scalp. Dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum infect the hair shaft and cause the disease.

The clinical presentation is usually one or more patches of hair loss, sometimes with a ‘black dot’ pattern (often broken off hairs), itching, scaling, along with inflammation, and pustules. Children, especially boys, are more likely to suffer from tinea capitis than adults.

The most common symptoms of a fungal scalp infection are:

  • Itching that is intense
  • Scaly bald patches
  • The lymph nodes are swollen
  • The scalp is covered with thick, crusty patches of baldness
  • The sores are open and oozing pus
  • Bald spots with black dots
  • The area is raised, spongy, and inflamed

Who gets ringworm?

Everyone can develop ringworm, no matter where they live. The following factors increase your risk of getting ringworm:

  • Living in a tropical environment
  • Excessive sweating
  • When sharing razors, towels, clothes, and other items
  • Heat and humidity
  • Do not wash and dry your feet well before putting on shoes and socks in a locker room or pool
  • Living in close proximity to others, such as in military housing
  • Play contact sports, such as wrestling, football, or rugby
  • Having diabetes
  • Overweight or obese
  • Wear clothes that chafe your skin










A protein is made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. It is the amino acids that determine the structure and function of proteins. Aside from helping build cells and repair tissue, amino acids also form antibodies and transport oxygen throughout the body.

Amino acids essential for hair growth

It has been determined that the following amino acids are essential for hair growth:

  • lysine: supports collagen synthesis as a restorative amino acid
  • methionine: assists in the formation of pre-collagen, which develops into collagen
  • cysteine: by providing sulfur to hair cells, it improves strength, elasticity, and texture of the hair
  • arginine: supports blood circulation around hair follicles.

Hair health is important to many people, especially as they age. Foods with high nutritional value such as eggs, leafy greens, and fatty fish are good for hair growth. Nutritional deficiencies can affect the health of your hair.

The rate at which it grows and how healthy it is, however, depends on many factors, including age, overall health, genetics, environmental exposure, medications, and diet. You may not be able to change some factors, such as age and genetics, but your diet is likely something you can control.

The growth cycle of hair follicles and cellular turnover is influenced by vitamins and minerals in food. Hair loss can be caused by a diet that lacks the right nutrients. It has been found that deficiencies in vitamins B12 and D, biotin, riboflavin, iron, and other nutrients may contribute to hair loss.

Nutritional factors and hair loss

A balanced diet rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals can promote hair growth, particularly if you’re experiencing hair loss due to poor nutrition. The connection between micronutrients and hair loss needs more research, but you should ensure you’re getting enough of these foods rich in nutrients that promote hair growth.

In the scientific world, amino acids are known as the “building blocks” of proteins. They assist your body in performing its functions. Amino acids (such as cysteine and L-lysine) play an important role in maintaining your hair’s health. However, you don’t need to take them as supplements. A healthy diet should provide you with plenty of amino acids. A few of the best food sources include fish, eggs, seeds and nuts, cottage cheese, whole grains, and meat.

Here are a few of the most important proteins, amino acids, minerals and vitamins for your hair and skin.


Because biotin (vitamin B7) is essential for the production of keratin, biotin supplements are often marketed for hair growth. It has also been shown that people with a biotin deficiency can benefit from consuming more biotin. There are numerous foods that contain biotin in small amounts. A deficiency of biotin caused by pregnancy, long-term tube feeding, malnutrition, or rapid weight loss can be prevented and treated with biotin. As well as treating hair loss and brittle nails, seborrheic dermatitis in infants, diabetes, and mild depression, it is used orally.


The protein keratin is found in the upper layers of the skin, hair, and nails, and in the feathers, horns, and hooves of animals. Keratin treatments make hair stronger and less likely to break by replenishing lost keratin in the hair shaft. The strands are less likely to break, so some people may be able to grow their hair longer. Due to its high sulfur content, keratin is unusual in that most of its sulfur is contained in the amino acid cystine (L-Cys).


The keratin of human hair contains more cystine (L-Cys) than any other protein. Hair is composed of keratin, a protein containing a high level of cystine. Disulfide bonds of cystine cross-link adjacent protein chains within the hair fiber structure, giving hair its mechanical strength. Cystine-fortified blends strengthen hair. The disulfide bridges formed by cystine give keratin its strength and rigidity.


Lysine (L-lysine) also appears to play an important role in hair loss. A significant proportion of women with increased hair shedding responded to lysine and iron therapy in an open study with double-blind data. As a “building block,” lysine helps build muscles with dietary protein. In addition, it promotes bone health by improving calcium absorption. It was found that L-lysine, an essential amino acid that might contribute to iron and zinc absorption, may play a role.


Iron is a crucial nutrient for the production of blood, and low levels are associated with hair loss. You may be suffering from an iron deficiency if you’re losing hair. Although the reason for this isn’t clear, make sure you eat plenty of iron-rich foods like meat, fish, poultry, tofu, broccoli, and many greens. Research over the past 40 years shows that iron deficiency is much more closely linked to hair loss than most doctors realize. This may be the key to restoring hair growth. A protein called ferritin is important for iron storage. In general, the less ferritin in the blood, the less iron the body stores.


Zinc is an essential component of most biological processes, so it’s no surprise that it strengthens the follicles beneath your scalp that nourish your hair. Zinc cannot be stored in your body, so you must consume it every day. There’s some evidence that zinc supplements could help with hair loss if your levels are low. In the process of growing and repairing hair tissue, zinc plays a vital role. As well as keeping the follicles healthy, it keeps the oil glands functioning.


Selenium is a nutrient found in some hair growth supplements. In addition to keeping your hair follicles healthy, it helps your body fight off any toxins you’re exposed to (such as from smoking or unclean air). Although rats and mice with low selenium go bald, this hasn’t been proven for humans. In fact, too much selenium can lead to hair loss and memory problems. There has been a connection between hair loss and certain nutrients (such as selenium, vitamin A, and vitamin E).

Protein-rich foods for healthy hair and skin


Protein from eggs is important for preventing hair loss. Diets low in protein can cause hair loss and reduce hair growth by putting hair growth in a “resting” phase. A B7 vitamin called biotin is also found in eggs, which is important for the health of hair, skin, and nails. In order for hair to grow, it is essential to consume enough protein. The follicles of the hair are largely composed of protein. Diets low in protein have been shown to cause hair loss.

Other nutrients that are good for hair can also be found in eggs, including zinc and selenium. It is for this reason that they are one of the best foods to consume for optimal hair health. Protein is an essential component of hair follicles, which promotes hair growth. Several studies have shown that a lack of protein in the diet is associated with hair loss.


The growth of your hair depends on fruits, especially acidic ones. Antioxidants and vitamins found in berries contribute to shiny, stronger hair, according to a recent study. In terms of nutrient power, no other fruit can match this super fruit. Because vitamin B6 plays an important role in protein metabolism, berries support healthy hair growth. Furthermore, vitamin B6 ensures that hair cells have access to amino acids (building blocks of protein).

Berries contain beneficial compounds and vitamins that may support hair growth. There are many antioxidants in this group, including vitamin C. Antioxidants protect hair follicles from free radical damage. The body and the environment contain these molecules naturally. As an example, 1 cup (144 grams) of strawberries contains 85 milligrams of vitamin C or up to 113% of your daily requirements. Vitamin C also promotes collagen production, a protein that prevents hair from becoming brittle and breaking.

Fatty fish

Salmon, herring, and mackerel are fatty fish rich in nutrients that may promote hair growth. Omega-3 fatty acids found in them have been linked to hair growth in several studies. Proteins, selenium, vitamin D3, and B vitamins are all nutrients found in fatty fish that may support strong and healthy hair. Taking a supplement containing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and antioxidants reduced hair loss and increased hair density in 120 women.

The best source of protein is fatty fish protein. Aside from its high protein content, fish is also carb-free. In addition to helping you lose weight, it is helpful to get rid of sugar and starch cravings when you are on a low-carb diet. Consider including fish in your healthy eating plan if it is not already part of it. Fish may be a good way to add protein to your diet and improve your health at the same time. A low-fat and omega-3-rich protein, it is among the healthiest around.


Oysters contain 9 grams of protein per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving, making them an excellent source of protein. In addition, they provide all nine essential amino acids your body needs. The mollusks are also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, a family of polyunsaturated fats that play a number of important functions in your body, such as helping heart and brain health, protecting against type 2 diabetes, and regulating inflammations.

There are few foods that can provide you with more zinc than oysters. A medium oyster provides up to 96% of a woman daily zinc requirement and 75% of a man. During the hair repair and growth cycle, zinc plays a crucial role. A lack of zinc in the diet can lead to telogen effluvium, a common but reversible form of hair loss. Zinc supplements may prevent hair loss caused by zinc deficiency, according to studies.


Nuts are a good source of plant-based protein. In addition to making a convenient snack, they can be added to many dishes to boost their protein content. By eating nuts, you can meet your protein needs, which are essential for building bones, muscles, and skin. It also increases fullness, helping you remain energized and satisfied.

A variety of nutrients are found in nuts that contribute to hair growth. In fact, one ounce (28 grams) of almonds supplies you with 48% of your daily vitamin E requirements. Additionally, they contain a variety of B vitamins, zinc, and essential fatty acids. Hair loss has been linked to deficiencies in any of these nutrients. A variety of other health benefits have also been linked to nuts, including reduced inflammation and a reduction in heart disease risk.


Beans are an excellent plant-based source of protein, which is essential for hair growth. Protein content in beans ranges from 21 to 25 percent by weight, which is much higher than in other vegetable proteins. Moreover, beans are inexpensive, so you can include them in your diet as an inexpensive way to eat nutrient-dense, high-protein foods. Among the amino acids found in beans is the amino acid lysine, which is used by the body to make hair, skin, muscles, bones, and blood.

As with oysters, beans provide zinc, which aids hair growth and repair. In just 3.5 ounces (100 grams), black beans provide 14% of a woman’s daily zinc requirements and 10% for men. Furthermore, they are rich in folate, biotin, and iron, which are all essential nutrients for healthy hair.


Soybeans provide high-quality protein, which is lacking in most other legumes, making them an ideal source of protein for vegetarians. Glycinin and conglycinin make up approximately 80% of soybean protein content. There are many forms of soy, each with different nutrients and health benefits.

Soy contains protein and fiber, as well as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. It is low in cholesterol and contains some unsaturated fat. Researchers have found that soybeans contain compounds that promote hair growth. Among these compounds is spermidine, which is abundant in soybeans. According to a study of 100 people, spermidine-containing nutritional supplements prolonged anagen phase hair growth. The longer a hair follicle remains in the anagen phase, the longer it will grow.


Proteins from meat are an important source of nutrition for humans. Protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products contain complete proteins, while fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds lack one or more essential amino acids. However, it’s important to note that too much red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat, is linked to cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

Meat is an important part of many people’s diets and is packed with nutrients that may promote hair growth. Hair follicles are repaired and strengthened with the help of protein in meat. Especially red meat is rich in a type of iron that is easy to absorb. Among other things, this mineral aids in the delivery of oxygen to your body’s cells, including your hair follicles.


Your hair’s health can be affected by what you eat. Vitamin A, C, D, and E, zinc, B vitamins, iron, biotin, proteins, and essential fatty acids may slow down hair growth or even lead to hair loss if you don’t get enough of them. The good news is that correcting a deficiency in any of these nutrients can promote hair growth and treat hair loss. Make sure your diet contains some of these foods if you feel you’re lacking any of them.











Hair types and styles


Genetics determines the type of hair you have. Heat and chemicals can alter your curl pattern, and hormones and medications can change your curl pattern somewhat, but your basic curl pattern is inherited from your parents. The genetic characteristics of your hair are reaffirmed each time it grows.

Oprah Winfrey’s stylist for decades, Andre Walker, devised a system that categorizes hair according to four curl patterns:

  • Type 1 – Straight hair
  • Type 2 – Wavy hair
  • Type 3 – Curly hair
  • Type 4 – Coily hair

Curls and coils are further divided into subcategories based on their tightness or looseness. Although it may seem simple, defining human characteristics isn’t easy.

Your crown could be type 4C and your temples could be type 4A. You may have straight hair at the root and wavy hair at the ends. Knowing what each type needs is the key to styling it well and maintaining its health.

There are further subcategories based on the tightness or looseness of the curls and coils. In spite of its simplicity, it isn’t as simple as most attempts to define human characteristics.

The best way to style and care for your hair type

Type 1: Straight

Type 1A

The hair of type 1A is 100% straight. This is a flat, straight surface with no hint of curl or wave. Thinness is another characteristic of type 1A hair. The strands of type 1A hair are extremely fine, so they easily fall out or shed. This texture has the advantage of maintaining its shine effortlessly. Rain or shine, it maintains a consistently silky texture.

There is a specific routine for each type of hair. Type 1 hair tends to be oily, so many stylists recommend checking the label to make sure the product you’re buying won’t add extra oil to your hair. Type 1A hair, which is naturally fine, tends to get greasy roots faster than other hair textures. In order to remove these excess oils and prevent itchiness and limpness, shampoo daily or every other day. Hair types 1A benefit most from pre-shampoo strengthening and moisturizing treatments.

Type 1B

Despite being consistently straight, type 1B hair tends to have slightly more volume and body than type 1A hair. There is a subtle bend or wave to type 1B hair, even though its overall appearance is smooth and straight.

With its medium-thick texture, each strand is easy to handle and hold. As type 1B hair has a thicker texture than type 1A, products can build up and make the hair and scalp greasy. Oily hair can overshadow the brilliant straight texture of type 1B hair without the right tools and products.

We recommend the same for both styles 1 and 2. Serums and butter should be avoided. Instead, texture sprays are recommended for straight or fine hair. It is also a good idea to use dry shampoo. People with straight, oily hair benefit from dry shampoo because washing their hair too often can cause their scalp to overproduce oils.

Type 2: Wavy hair

Type 2A

Type 2 hair is naturally tousled and gentle. Your hair is fairly straight from the roots to around eye level. From eye level to the ends, you have a loose, undefined wave. Avoid oil-based or creamy products if you want to avoid flattening that wave. To define those waves, stylists recommend boosting the base with a light mousse or gel.

Defining and enhancing your 2A waves while avoiding product buildup is the key to getting the smooth texture you desire. Lightweight hair serum can help you achieve this. Serums impart shine, smoothness, and hydration without looking oily or sticky. You can make the texture of your waves appear more uniform by coating your hair cuticles with just a dime-size amount of product.

Type 2B

The hair of type 2B curls from the midpoint to the ends, just as it does with type 2A. Curls have a more defined S shape. With a spritz of salt spray, you can create that beachy look with little effort. In balayage, stylists hand-paint color on the outer layer of hair with type 2B.

There is something glorious about 2B hair. The problem is that if you don’t use the right products every day, it can turn into a messy bun or hat day. Depending on how often you wash your hair and how much styling product you use between washes, you might need a legitimate shampoo to cleanse your scalp and strands. Specifically formulated for 2B hair, this shampoo works well. In addition to controlling frizz, it has an oil-based formula that works as a detangler, smoother, and shine enhancer. In addition, it protects against humidity as well.

Type 2C

Type 2C waves are the most well-defined S-shaped waves. Waves may begin near the crown and tumble downward. The hair of type 2C is usually thick and prone to frizz in damp weather. There are plenty of benefits to having 2C hair. Type 2C hair is thick and voluminous due to its dense natural texture. You can pull, dampen, or blow-dry it without losing its shape.

You can eliminate frizz by using a diffuser, a toothy device that snaps onto the end of your blow dryer. Additionally, anti-humidity products are very helpful, especially where hard water and salt water are present. Those with 2C hair may find it frustrating to alternate between daily straightening, which can damage hair, and finding ways to enhance and control their waves. In addition to moisture, many lightweight mousses now contain anti-humidity ingredients.

Type 3: Curly hair

Type 3A

S-shaped curls form loose loops in type 3A hair. The spiral curls of type 3A hair are typically the size of sidewalk chalk and are well-defined. Although 3A curls have a wider circumference than 3B and 3C curls, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Straight hair types seem to have it easier on some days than curly hair types – just shampoo, condition, rinse, and repeat. However, no hair type is perfect. However, it should be viewed positively. With 3A hair, you don’t need a curling iron or blow dryer to achieve voluminous curls.

Type 3A hair tends to have a slightly silkier texture, making it easier to manipulate. If the porosity is not handled properly, it can also struggle with dryness. It is possible to find natural hair in a variety of textures, including 3A hair. It’s true that 3A textures aren’t usually associated with the same concerns as other types 3 or 4, but they still offer quite a bit of versatility.

Type 3B

Curls of type 3B have a circumference about as wide as a Sharpie marker barrel. 3B curls are tight and springy, like those that wrap around your finger, according to the hair typing system. Since type 3B curls fall in the middle of the type 3 spectrum, someone with type 3B curls could have a mix of 2C, 3A, 3B, and 3C curls.

Volume is abundant in curls that spring from the roots. Moisture is necessary for these ringlets to maintain their spiral shape. However, make sure your curl products don’t contain silicone or sulfates. While they may temporarily tame frizz, they can dry hair and cause breakage over time. Create and follow a comprehensive plan for daily care and protection that avoids heat as much as possible.

Type 3C

The curls are tight and springy – they would coil perfectly around a drinking straw. Take a hands-on approach to preserving the definition in these corkscrew curls. Despite strict definitions, this hair type does not always have a circumference of a pencil or straw. In order to fill the gap between 3B and 4A, 3C was created and added to the hair type chart. You will need to know how to take care of this particular type of natural hair if you fall into this category.

Hair with curly ends has a harder time retaining moisture because natural oils produced by the scalp can’t reach the hair shaft completely. If you have high or low porosity hair, this struggle just got worse. Instead of combing, use a leave-in conditioner and rake your fingers through wet hair. In an article published by the American Academy of Dermatology, it is advised to air-dry instead of using a blow dryer. Using your products in the correct order is so important for any hair type, but especially for 3C hair. This will keep your hair moisturized and nourished between washes.

Type 4: Coils

Type 4A

Hair in 4A has an S-shaped curl pattern you could wrap around a chopstick. As far as hair types go, type 4 is the most delicate. Type 4A hair has a dense, kinky curly texture with plenty of volume. Each curl measures about the width of a crochet needle. Because the coily texture has more of an S pattern than other types 4, it shrinks much less from wet to dry. Type 4A hair experiences dryness because it has difficulty transferring oils from roots to tips, despite being less dry than other coily hair types.

Dryness can result in frizz and may require major hydration efforts to restore it to its healthiest, most defined appearance. It needs a lot of moisture, and you should be very gentle with it. In order to get moisture, you don’t necessarily have to use oils. A deep conditioning masque, butter, or cream are good options for maintaining hair health. It is the loosest and softest of all coily textures, which can be both a blessing and a curse. Even though it feels silkiest to the touch, it can become unruly if brushed or touched too often.

Type 4B

Type 4B hair has tighter curls than type 4A hair. In comparison to 4C curls, 4B curls are tighter. The 4B curls bend in a zig-zag pattern. Grab a strand of 4B hair and gently pull it downward, and you’ll see tight vertical “Z” curls. 4B hair usually shrinks up to 50-75% of its actual length compared to 4A hair.

The process of shingling begins with wet hair. Apply generous amounts of leave-in conditioner to moisturize and condition your hair after gently detangling it with your fingertips. Separate your hair into four sections. Using your index finger, twist the curling cream or gel down the length of each curl. It is common for 4B hair to be dry. It can lose its shine, tangle like a nest of birds, and form knots if it isn’t moisturized. Use leave-in conditioners or water to moisturize your hair. To keep your curls looking healthy, defined, and popping, use other moisturizing and sealing products (like shea, mango, and cocoa butter).

Type 4C

4C hair is the tightest type 4 lock due to its tight coils, sharp angles, and naturally voluminous texture. The maintenance of 4C hair can be an intimidating task, as much as we love it. You can easily damage them if you comb too rough or too often, so it’s important to frequently nourish your hair with rich conditioners. Chemical treatments and heat styling can cause breakage, dryness, and damage to this hair type.

Shea butter creams and coconut oils are still popular. Frizz and dryness can be difficult to deal with. You can never have enough softness and moisture when you have 4C hair. The problem is that hair damage over time – especially from coloring and chemical processing – can make it more difficult for it to hold onto moisture. In between shampoos, co-washes can be used to cleanse and hydrate the scalp without removing its natural oils. Since it lies between conditioner and shampoo, co-wash doesn’t contain drying alcohols and is safe to use on your roots.

Hairstyles for different hair types

Very curly tresses


Many women have thick, curly tresses. It is difficult to manage and maintain this kind of hair. The center-parted curly hairstyle gives you some control over your hair. It is possible to create an interesting look by parting the hair.

The best way to style super-curly hair is to keep styling to a minimum. Be careful not to overdo it with products. To style your strands, all you need is a leave-in conditioner. You only need a dime-size amount. While the hair is still dripping wet, apply it evenly throughout your locks, from roots to ends. Spread the conditioner through your hair with a wide-toothed comb. You can blow dry your hair or let it air dry if you prefer. You’re good to go! Frizzy hair gets frizzier as you touch it more.

Wavy locks


You can style your short and wavy hair in a variety of ways. Short wavy curly hairstyles are suitable for women with this type of hair texture. You can part your hair or simply brush it and let it fall on your forehead. Using a clip or twisting your hair will prevent hair from falling on your face.

Keeping your hair’s natural waves is easier than you think. Smooth a generous amount of curl cream onto still-damp strands to better define waves. Once your hair is 50% dry, attach a diffuser to your blow dryer. Using a large-barrel curling iron will enhance the wavy texture even more

Flat tresses


It is widely believed that more layers and angles make hair look fuller. In fact, adding too much movement to already-flat hair can make it fall limp. Keeping your hair in long pieces is the key to keeping its thickness. Don’t chop it up and thin it out with layers. Add fullness and body to strands by cutting them one length. Try a collarbone-length bob, for instance.

You can add oomph to your long locks by asking your hairstylist to cut your hair in long layers. To straight tresses, layered strands add texture and volume. In addition to the volumizing products on the market, a strategic haircut will work wonders to give your tresses a much-needed boost of volume naturally.

Chemically relaxed hair


Overuse of styling tools is a surefire way to break or lose relaxed hair. Avoid blow dryers and flat irons. Wrap your hair at night and cover it with a silk scarf to keep it smooth and straight without heat. Comb all of your hair around the crown of your head until it is smooth. If necessary, secure with bobby pins and cover with the scarf.

To break disulfide bonds, chemical relaxers use extremely high temperatures and chemicals. You can then have your hair permanently straightened by your stylist. Ammonium thioglycolate, sodium thioglycolate, and sodium hydroxide are some of the chemicals used in relaxers.

Frizzy and dry hair


Hair that is dry and lacks moisture is prone to frizziness. It’s ironic that humid, wet weather exacerbates frizzy hair. Due to dry hair’s tendency to absorb moisture from the air, the hair’s cuticle, or outer layer, swells up instead of lying flat. Your hair’s texture or porosity, protein levels, and even your environment can significantly affect the amount of moisture it needs.

You can tame frizz while you sleep, believe it or not. For women with curly hair, experts suggest switching out their pillowcases since frizz is a major complaint. If you want to keep your curls in good condition, use a silk pillowcase rather than a cotton one. A silk pillowcase reduces friction in your hair while you sleep, and less friction means less frizz.

Greasy strands


Even though not everyone has the same hair care routine, ending up with greasy hair after just washing it seems to happen more often than not. An overproduction of sebum can cause persistently greasy hair, which may indicate an underlying health issue. However, the way people wash and care for their hair, as well as the type of hair products they use, may be to blame.

As your scalp gets greasy first, apply styling products from midway down the strand to the ends only. The same applies to conditioners. Do not apply it to your roots, where your scalp naturally produces oils. Hands should not be used to touch your hair in general. Hair can look greasy sooner as a result of the natural oils on your fingertips.

Super-thick hair


It is common for some people to have wider follicles and thicker hair strands than others. Hair texture – straight, wavy, or curly – and thickness of individual strands of hair are largely determined by genetic factors. There are different genes associated with hair texture and thickness among people from different ethnic backgrounds. In addition to genetics, hormones and age also play an important role in hair thickness.

Make the most of your thick hair. It’s important to keep locks looking groomed, not heavy. Get your hair styled with layers and angles. Give your hair some airiness and bounce by asking your stylist for “face-framing feathery layers.” To keep your mane looking its best, schedule your next few trims every 4 to 6 weeks at the salon. A lot of hair can make split ends stand out even more.

Stringy strands


Stringy hair is usually long, fine hair that gets oily or has too much product in it, causing the strands to clump together. Even if your hair is clean, it may look greasy and lifeless. Depending on your hair type, you can style stringy hair in a variety of ways. The most common cause of stringy hair is excess oil or product. As a result of hair loss, hair may appear thinner and more stringy.

Women with stringy hair feel like they can’t go a day without washing it. However, washing your hair every day can be extremely drying. Try dry shampoo or lifting spray instead. By doing so, you can extend the time between washings. Apply dry shampoo to dry hair at the roots, then massage it in with your fingers. Finish by shaking out your hair.

Gray locks


Although your genes determine the onset of gray hair and the number of grays on your head, sometimes, graying is caused by zinc or iron deficiency. So if you notice gray strands, consult a doctor or nutritionist to see if you need dietary supplements. Make sure you eat a healthy diet as well. When the hair tissues are at their lowest energy level, you should focus on proteins for breakfast and lunch. Don’t forget to stay hydrated throughout the day.

There is a tendency for gray hair to be wirier and coarser than other hair colors. Salt and pepper strands can be softened by using the right conditioners. Choose conditioners that contain avocado, flaxseed, or jojoba oils. It is possible that they will help moisturize hair. Since smoother strands reflect light better, conditioning also enhances shine.





Keto Diet


The keto diet causes the body of a healthy person to make ketones to lose weight. There are many health benefits associated with the ketogenic diet (or keto diet, for short). It has been shown in many studies that this type of diet can help you lose weight and improve your health. There is evidence that ketogenic diets may even benefit diabetics, cancer patients, epileptics, and Alzheimer’s patients.

How does a ketogenic diet work?

Ketogenic diets are very low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets that have proven very effective for rapid weight loss. Diets force your body to use a different type of fuel. Keto diets rely on ketone bodies (ketones), which are produced from stored fat instead of sugar (glucose) that comes from carbohydrates (such as grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits).

The obesity epidemic remains a major medical hazard, with an adult mortality rate of up to 2.8 million per year despite continuous advances in medical science. Diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are largely associated with obesity, which is caused by an unhealthy lifestyle and poor eating habits. In some cases, appropriate diet regimens can aid in managing the obesity epidemic.

Ketogenic diets are characterized by high fats, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrates. Approximately 55% to 60% of the dietary macronutrients come from fat, 30% to 35% from protein, and 5% to 10% from carbohydrates. A 2000 kcal diet contains 20 to 50 grams of carbohydrates per day.

In 1921, Russell Wilder used the ketogenic diet to treat epilepsy. The term “ketogenic diet” was also coined by him. Since the introduction of antiepileptic agents, the ketogenic diet has lost its popularity as a therapeutic diet for pediatric epilepsy. Ketosis diets are gaining popularity as rapid weight loss formulas, and as a result, they have been shown to work.

The primary source of energy in body tissues is carbohydrates. During a period of low carbohydrate intake, insulin secretion is significantly reduced and the body enters a catabolic state. In order to replenish glycogen stores, the body undergoes certain metabolic changes. A low carbohydrate availability in body tissues triggers two metabolic processes: gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis.

A ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat diet with many similarities to the Atkins and low-carb diets. The diet involves drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and replacing it with fat. By reducing carbs, your body enters a metabolic state called ketosis. Your body becomes incredibly efficient at burning fat for energy when this happens. Additionally, it converts fat into ketones in the liver, which can supply the brain with energy.

Ketogenic diets can significantly reduce blood sugar and insulin levels. Along with the increased ketones, this has some health benefits.

Ketogenic diets: types and effects

Ketogenic diets come in several forms, including:

  • High protein ketogenic diet: Similar to a ketogenic diet, but with more protein. Usually, 60% of the calories come from fat, 35% from protein, and 5% from carbohydrates.
  • Targeted ketogenic diet (TKD): With this diet, you can add carbohydrates to your workouts.
  • Cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD): It involves periods of higher-carb refeeds, such as 5 ketogenic days followed by 2 high-carb days.
  • Standard ketogenic diet (SKD): Low carb, moderate protein, and high-fat diet. 70% of it is fat, 20% is protein, and only 10% is carbohydrates.

Ketogenic diets, however, have only been extensively studied for the standard and high protein varieties. A cyclical or targeted ketogenic diet is mostly used by athletes and bodybuilders.

Ketosis: what is it?

In ketosis, your body uses fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates. By reducing carbohydrates, your body is unable to produce glucose (sugar), which is the main source of energy for your cells.

A ketogenic diet is the most effective way to enter ketosis. To achieve this, you should limit your carbohydrate consumption to 20 to 50 grams per day, as well as consume foods that contain fats such as meat, fish, eggs, nuts and healthy oils. Protein consumption should also be moderated. Protein can be converted into glucose if consumed in high quantities, which may slow the ketosis process.

Intermittent fasting can also help you enter ketosis more quickly. Intermittent fasting involves limiting food intake to 8 hours per day and fasting for the remaining 16 hours of the day.

The amount of ketones produced by your body can be measured with blood, urine, and breath tests. Ketosis can also be characterized by increased thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, and decreased hunger or appetite.

The foods you should eat

These foods should make up the majority of your meals:

  • eggs: pastured or omega-3 whole eggs
  • cheese: natural cheeses like goat, mozzarella, cheddar, cream, blue
  • butter and cream: heavy cream and grass-fed butter
  • meat: steak, ham, sausage, red meat, bacon, turkey, chicken
  • fatty fish: tuna, salmon, trout, mackerel
  • avocados: freshly made guacamole or whole avocados
  • nuts and seeds: chia seeds, almonds, flaxseeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, etc.
  • low carb veggies: peppers, tomatoes, green veggies, onions, etc.
  • healthy oils: avocado oil, extra virgin olive oil
  • condiments: herbs, salt, pepper, spices

It’s best to eat mostly whole, single-ingredient foods.

A list of foods to avoid

Carbohydrate-rich foods should be limited. On a ketogenic diet, you need to reduce or eliminate the following foods:

  • unhealthy fats: mayonnaise, processed vegetable oils, etc.
  • alcohol: liquor, mixed drinks, beer, wine,
  • sugary foods: fruit juice, candy, soda, ice cream, smoothies, cake, etc.
  • sugar-free diet foods: sweeteners, syrups, sugar-free candies, puddings, desserts, etc.
  • fruit: all fruit, except small servings of berries like strawberries
  • grains or starches: pasta, cereal, wheat-based products, rice, etc.
  • low fat or diet products: salad dressings, low-fat mayonnaise, and condiments
  • some condiments or sauces: ketchup, honey mustard, barbecue sauce, teriyaki sauce, etc.
  • root vegetables and tubers: carrots, sweet potatoes, potatoes, parsnips, etc.
  • beans or legumes: lentils, kidney beans, peas, chickpeas, etc.

Ketogenic diet health benefits

The popularity of ketogenic diets is increasing as doctors and researchers investigate their potential benefits. In a ketogenic diet, nutritional ketosis is achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake, reducing protein intake, and increasing fat intake.

This restriction of carbohydrates should cause the body to switch from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism as its primary source of energy. As a result, ketone bodies are produced from fat metabolism, a metabolic state in which fat is the body’s primary fuel source.

A low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet such as the ketogenic diet has shown promising results in treating patients with:

  • lose weight
  • supplement cancer treatments
  • improve epigenetic profiles
  • increase longevity and brain function
  • reduce or eliminate insulin requirements for type II diabetics
  • reverse the signs of metabolic syndrome
  • reduce inflammation
  • improve lipid profiles

In addition, a low-carbohydrate diet is not a new or novel way to treat diabetes. Diabetic patients used diet as their primary intervention before insulin was invented. With the keto diet, people with type 2 diabetes can lose weight and lower their blood sugar levels. In one study, people with type 2 lost weight, needed less medication, and lowered their A1c when they followed the keto diet.

For people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, the ketogenic diet can improve insulin sensitivity and cause fat loss.

Keto diet has other health benefits

Originally, the ketogenic diet was used to treat neurological diseases like epilepsy. Various studies have shown that the diet can benefit a variety of health conditions, including:

Heart disease: In addition to improving cholesterol levels and blood pressure, a ketogenic diet can improve body fat and HDL (good) cholesterol levels.

Cancer: Currently, the diet is being studied as an additional treatment for cancer due to its potential to slow tumor growth.

Alzheimer’s disease: The keto diet may help reduce Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and slow its progression.

Epilepsy: There is evidence that the ketogenic diet can significantly reduce seizures in epileptic children.

Parkinson’s disease: One study found that the diet improved symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but more research is needed.

Polycystic ovary syndrome: Ketogenic diets can reduce insulin levels, which may play an important role in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Brain injuries: According to some research, the diet may improve the outcome of traumatic brain injuries.

Nevertheless, many of these areas remain subject to much research.


People who are overweight, diabetic, or looking to improve their metabolic health may benefit from a ketogenic diet.

It may not be suitable for elite athletes or those who want to gain a great deal of muscle or weight. As well, some people’s lifestyles and preferences may not allow them to maintain this lifestyle. To find out if a keto eating plan is right for you, speak with your doctor about your eating plan and goals.

Consult your doctor before starting a keto diet. Some people with diabetes, particularly those who need to lose weight, can benefit from this way of eating by improving their symptoms and reducing the need for medication. However, for others, the keto diet could worsen their diabetes.











Autophagy is the process by which your body replaces destroyed cells with new ones. There is a long list of potential health benefits associated with it. There is some evidence that it may slow the development of conditions such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, for example.

What is autophagy?

In 2016, Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi won the Nobel Prize for research on how cells break down and recycle their contents, an aspect of metabolism linked to cancer, diabetes, and neurologic disorders that can be therapeutically manipulated.

As part of autophagy, the body breaks down old damaged cells to make room for new healthy ones. Autophagy also destroys bacteria and viruses, and may even prevent cells from becoming cancerous. As a result of autophagy, your immune system may even be strengthened against viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells.

During autophagy, damaged cells are removed from the body in order to regenerate healthier cells. In Greek word “auto” means “self”, and the word “phagy” means “eat”. In other words, autophagy means “self-eating.” Despite the fact that it may seem like something you would never want to happen to your body, it helps your health in the long run. As a self-preservation mechanism, autophagy removes dysfunctional cells and recycles parts of them for cellular repair.

There are a number of ways in which autophagy contributes to cell survival. Proteins and organelles that have been damaged are recycled by it. During autophagosome formation, cellular waste is engulfed and transported to a lysosome, where enzymes break it down into nutrients and building blocks. Bacteria and viruses are captured and eliminated by cells using these same tools. Cells can obtain emergency fuel by eating themselves through autophagy in evolutionary response to starvation.

What are the benefits of autophagy?

Autophagy appears to have major anti-aging benefits. Autophagy has the following benefits at the cellular level:

  • on a larger scale, it stimulates the regeneration of healthy cells
  • assisting in repairing damaged cells by providing energy and building blocks
  • neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, are attributed to toxic proteins in the cells
  • residual protein recycling

There is a lot of interest in autophagy because of its possible role in preventing or treating cancer.

It is true that all cancers start from defective cells, but the body should recognize and remove those cells through autophagy. This is why some researchers are investigating the possibility that autophagy may reduce cancer risk.

Despite the lack of scientific evidence, some studies suggest that autophagy can remove various cancerous cells. New studies are expected to provide insight that will help them target autophagy as a cancer therapy.

There are several ways to speed up autophagy, even though it occurs constantly within your body. Among these are fasting, exercising, and limiting your calorie intake. Low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diets can also help autophagy by promoting ketosis, a metabolic state where fat is burned for energy instead of sugar.

Autophagy signs and symptoms

If you aren’t a trained and experienced scientist or researcher, measuring autophagy at home can be difficult. In spite of the difficulty in measuring autophagy, here are a few signs that indicate autophagy:

Reduced appetite: The reduction of appetite is one of the key signs of autophagy. It may be caused by changes in hormone levels such as glucagon and insulin. During autophagy, glucagon levels tend to rise. Blood sugar levels are managed by glucagon, and appetite is suppressed by it. As insulin levels decrease, your appetite may also decrease. Ketosis may also decrease levels of ghrelin, also known as the hunger hormone, which reduces feelings of hunger.

Weight loss: Weight loss is not directly related to autophagy, but many methods used to induce autophagy – such as calorie restriction – can lead to it. Additionally, fasting and ketosis can boost fat burning and support healthy body composition. Improved insulin sensitivity and the preservation of lean muscle mass are possible benefits. Furthermore, autophagy affects the levels of certain hormones, including glucagon, insulin, and ghrelin, resulting in a decrease in hunger. By reducing calories consumed, these effects could promote weight loss.

Increased levels of ketones: As a result of not having enough carbohydrates to use as fuel, your body produces ketones from fatty acids. The production of ketones may stimulate autophagy, according to research. As a result, increased ketone levels can also indicate autophagy along with ketosis. Ketone levels in your blood, breath, or urine can be easily measured using special meters or strips to determine whether autophagy is occurring.

Enhanced brain function: Autophagy plays a central role in brain function and nerve cell health. In a study of older adults with mild mental impairment, intermittent fasting was linked to improved brain function. In another study of 883 older adults, the beneficial effects associated with intermittent fasting were partially attributed to autophagy. Aside from increasing autophagy, ketones are also an effective source of brain energy and could promote cognition.

Experiencing fatigue: Autophagy is one factor associated with fatigue. A ketogenic diet or fasting has been linked to low energy levels and fatigue when used to induce autophagy. Additionally, these eating patterns may lead to low blood sugar levels, which may contribute to fatigue. In most cases, this side effect will only last for a short period of time. It is important to remember that fatigue can also be caused by health issues such as nutritional deficiencies or psychological conditions. For those who are experiencing this symptom consistently, it is best to consult a doctor to make sure that there is no underlying health condition causing it.

Having bad breath: When following a ketogenic diet to stimulate autophagy, bad breath is a common symptom. Ketosis can cause bad breath. In ketosis, ketone levels increase, resulting in autophagy. The unpleasant odor, which is often described as fruity or metallic, is caused by a type of ketone called acetone. You can keep your breath fresh by brushing your teeth more often or chewing sugar-free gum.


As more studies are conducted on autophagy’s impact on health, it will continue to gain interest. Currently, nutrition and health experts point out that we still need to learn more about autophagy and how to encourage it. If you’re interested in stimulating autophagy in your body, try fasting and regular exercise to get started.

Autophagy is not physically felt, but it can cause noticeable symptoms. Changes in metabolism or levels of specific hormones like insulin or glucagon can cause these symptoms. Nevertheless, if you are taking any medications, you are pregnant, breastfeeding, wish to become pregnant, or have a chronic condition, such as diabetes or heart disease, please first consult your doctor.










Did you know that your nails can provide clues as to the general health of your body? It is possible that the white color or pink shade of your nails, some folds or bumps on the skin may indicate some health problems. The nails may reveal problems with the liver, lungs, and heart. Read on to discover what secrets your nails may hold.

Changes in nails

Do not ignore changes in your nails, but do not jump to conclusions either. A nail that is not smooth or of a different color can indicate a variety of diseases – or none at all. It is only your doctor who can provide you with an accurate diagnosis.

Consider the usual suspects before assuming that there is a serious problem. Nails crack, peel, or change color and texture due to bruises, under-the-nail bleeding, and fungal infections. Even though fungal infections are common, they can be difficult to treat. A dermatologist should be consulted if your symptoms do not resolve.

Changes in the nails are rarely the first indication of illness. There are usually other symptoms present before that occurs. As an example, emphysema can lead to breathing difficulties much earlier than significant changes on the nails.

White nails

Known as leukonychia, white nails refer to fingernails that are partially or completely white in color. Many factors can cause the white color, including trauma, anemia, dietary deficiencies, heart disease, kidney disease, and poisoning.

White nails with darker rims may indicate liver disease, such as hepatitis. You may have a low red blood cell count if your nails appear pale or white. Additionally, white nails may indicate liver disease, diabetes, an overactive thyroid, heart failure, or nutritional deficiencies.

The condition Terry’s nails is characterized by mostly white nails with a narrow pink band at the tip. As well as being a result of aging, it may also indicate the onset of diabetes, kidney, liver, or heart disease.

Terry’s nails

Terry’s nails are characterized by white nails with a narrow pink band at the tip. The nails of Terry are a type of apparent leukonychia, which is characterized by ground glass opacification over nearly the entire nail, obliteration of the lunula, and a narrow band of normal, pink nail bed at the distal border. Besides normal aging, Terry’s nails can also indicate an underlying medical condition, including cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, and congestive heart failure.

There is an opacification of nearly the entire nail, obliteration of the lunula, and a narrow band of normal, pink nail bed at the distal border. In addition to being a symptom of normal aging, Terry’s nails can also be a sign of an underlying medical condition. A thorough nail examination with every physical examination is important due to the association between nail changes and systemic disease.

Yellow nails

Yellow nails are commonly caused by fungal infections. As the infection worsens, the nail bed may retract, and the nails may thicken and crumble. Rarely, yellow nails may indicate a more serious condition such as thyroid disease, lung disease, diabetes, or psoriasis.

The presence of thick, slow-growing and yellow nails can indicate lung diseases such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Yellow nail syndrome is also caused by fluid in your lungs and hands. Similarly, Raynaud’s phenomenon can occur when the fingers, toes, and nose do not receive adequate circulation.

Yellow nails can even be caused by sinusitis (sinus inflammation), thyroid problems, lymph accumulation, and rheumatoid arthritis. In some cases, yellow nails run in families, suggesting a genetic link. You can only discover what they mean if you speak with your doctor.

Yellow nail syndrome

Yellow nail syndrome causes nails to thicken and new growth to slow down. As a result, the nails become yellowish in color. Yellow nail syndrome can cause nails to lack a cuticle and detach from the nail bed. In many cases, yellow nails are a sign of respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis. Lymphedema (swelling of the hands) can also cause yellow nail syndrome.

Bluish nails

Blue nails can indicate low oxygen levels in the body. Emphysema, for example, could be causing this. Blue nails can also be a sign of heart problems.

A lack of oxygen in your blood causes your skin or membranes beneath your skin to turn a purplish-blue color. Cyanosis is the medical term for this type of appearance on the skin. Symptoms of cyanosis are blue-red-violet hues in the veins that are caused by deoxygenated blood coursing through the arteries.

You might also notice it on your lips or earlobes. A lack of oxygen in your red blood cells can cause this. You will have your heart, lungs, blood cells, and blood vessels checked by your doctor. The first step in treating anemia is identifying the underlying cause. Unlike laboratory tests, cyanosis is a finding based on what is seen.

Rippled nails

You have nail pitting when your fingernails or toenails have tiny dents. Psoriasis, eczema, and joint inflammation can cause it. A family history of these diseases might also make you susceptible to them.

Rippled or pitted nails may indicate psoriasis or inflammatory arthritis. The skin under the nail can appear reddish-brown when the nail is discolored.

The appearance of your toenails and fingernails is altered by nail psoriasis. Symptoms include thickening, pinprick holes, color changes, and shape changes. It is also possible for them to feel tender and painful.

It’s possible that only your nails are affected, but it’s rare. That’s why pitting can be an indication that something is going on elsewhere in the body.

Cracked or split nails

Cracked or split nails, caused by dry, brittle nails, may be caused by thyroid disease. Fungal infections are more likely to cause cracking or splitting combined with a yellowish hue.

Cracked nails are commonly caused by getting older, something everyone goes through. Getting older makes your nails thinner and more likely to crack. Women over 60 are most likely to suffer from this, but men can also suffer from it.

Your fingernails can split if you spend a lot of time in and out of the water, such as when you wash dishes. Additionally, your body needs iron to produce healthy red blood cells that carry oxygen to all your tissues. Iron deficiency causes anemia. There are many symptoms of this condition, including cracked nails.

The risk of anemia increases during pregnancy. Ulcers and cancer, for example, can also cause these symptoms.

You may also see peeling and ridges if your cracked nails are related to aging. In addition, nail polishes and nail polish removers may contain strong chemicals. You might weaken and dry out your nails if you use them a lot. As a result, they are more likely to crack. Acryl nails can also cause a reaction due to glues and dyes.

Nail products containing toluene and formaldehyde should be avoided. You might be able to heal your nails with biotin, a B vitamin supplement. Consult your doctor if your nails are still cracking after 6 months.

Puffy nail fold (Paronychia)

Inflammation, redness, tenderness, and swelling of the skin folds and tissues around the nails are symptoms of chronic paronychia. Usually caused by irritants or allergens, it can also be caused by the fungus Candida albicans, other infections, or psoriasis. It is possible for a bacterial infection to occur alongside a fungal infection.

Paronychia may develop slowly over a period of weeks or suddenly appear over a period of one or two days, depending on the cause. Paronychia’s symptoms are easily spotted and are usually easy and successful to treat with little or no damage to the skin or nails. If you don’t treat your infection, you may lose your nail partially or completely.

Paronychia is a common condition. It can result from injury to the area, such as biting off or picking a hangnail, trimming or pushing back the cuticle. Topical steroids (corticosteroids) are usually effective in treating it.

Acute infections tend to occur around the fingernails and spread quickly. Biting, picking, hangnails, manicures, or other physical trauma can damage the skin around the nails. In the case of acute paronychia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus bacteria are common infecting agents.

A chronic paronychia occurs slowly on fingers and toes. It usually lasts several weeks and comes back frequently. Typically, it is caused by several infecting agents, usually Candida yeast and bacteria. Those who work in water constantly are more likely to develop this condition. Wet skin causes the natural cuticle barrier to be disrupted for a long period of time. As a result, yeast and bacteria can grow and infect the skin.

Dark lines beneath the nail

Melanonychia is a nail discoloration caused by the pigment melanin. A variety of causes may contribute to this condition, such as skin cancer, infection, or injury.

Nail trauma or fungal infections usually cause them. Infections in the heart lining can also cause them, as can psoriasis, or even melanoma. Under the fingernails or toenails, there are small areas of bleeding (hemorrhage).

Under the nails, splinter hemorrhages appear as thin, reddish-brown lines. The growth direction of the nails is the direction in which they run. Infection of the heart valves (endocarditis) can cause splinter hemorrhages. Vasculitis (swelling of the blood vessels) or microemboli (tiny clots that damage small capillaries) can cause them.

Black or brown lines running from the bottom to the tip might be melanoma. It sometimes appears as a dark blob. The presence of cyanosis is not a symptom of all heart or lung diseases. Having no cyanosis may be reassuring, but it doesn’t mean there is no heart problem.

Gnawed nails

Occasionally, biting your nails may be nothing more than an old habit, but it could also indicate anxiety that needs treatment. The habit of biting or picking at one’s nails has also been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Your doctor should be consulted if you are unable to stop.

It is common for people to bite their nails at some point in their lives, especially as children. Nail biting typically begins during childhood and increases during adolescence. This particular habit may not be clear why someone develops it, but once it begins, it can be difficult to control.

It is possible to bite the nail, the cuticle, and the tissue around the nail when you bite your nails. In most cases, nail biters don’t develop long-term damage, but it can happen. Generally, nail biting is a cosmetic problem that does not require medical attention. However, severe nail biting can lead to infections, dental issues, and other problems.


Despite the fact that changes in the nails occur with many health conditions, they are rarely the first sign of a health problem. There are many nail abnormalities that are harmless. Not everyone with white nails has hepatitis. Consult a dermatologist if you are concerned about the appearance of your nails.

Your doctor may be able to provide reassurance, or they may decide that further evaluation or consultation is needed.